The following are suggestions for removal of low productivity of Indian agriculture:
(i) Better Irrigation Facilities:
Indian agriculture is mainly dependent on monsoon. So permanent means of irrigation should be developed.
There should be large number of tube wells and canals for irrigation.
of Quality Seeds:
Quality seeds should be sold through co-operative societies or village Panchayats. Farmers should be given awareness regarding various varieties of seeds. Marginal farmers should be given seeds on loan.
(iii) Green Manure:
Production of chemical fertilizers should be increased and it should be made available to farmers at sub-sidised rates. Farmers should be educated for firing green manure. Oil cakes may be used as fertilizers.
(iv) Credit Facilities:
Farmers should be advanced loans at reasonable rates of interest. Regional Rural Banks should be opened. Commercial banks should be directed to provide loans to small farmers on easy terms. Local moneylenders should be scrutinized to stop their malpractices.
(v) Agricultural Marketing:
Agricultural marketing should be improved so that the farmer gets proper price for their produce warehousing facilities should be improved. Means of Transport should be strengthened. Regulated markets and Co-operative marketing societies should be established.
(vi) Land Reforms:
For the development of agriculture land reforms are essential. Zamindari system should be abolished. Cultivators should be made owners of land. Ceiling on land holdings should be imposed. Minimum size of farms should be fixed. Problem of soil erosion and waterlogging should be solved. Waste land should be put in use for cultivation.
(vii) Mixed Farming:
Farmers should be educated for adopting mixed farming. Mixed farming refers to the practice of crop cultivation, animal husbandry, vegetable and fruit growing simultaneously. Diary farming should be encouraged with a view of improving the economic condition of the farmers.
Agricultural Department along with Extension Education Department of Agricultural Universities should educate the farmers in general and farming operations in particular. They will get new ideas of latest methods of cultivation. They will increase their production.
(ix) Help is Small Farmers:
Small and marginal farmers should be helped with high yielding variety seeds, fertilizers and new agricultural techniques. Loans should be given to farmers at concessional rates of interest.
(x) Price Stability:
Due to mechanised farming and Green Revolution, production of crops will increase. So price of crops will fall. Govt. should ensure that prices should not fall and proper price should be made available to farmer.
(xi) Efficient Administration:
Plans are made for agricultural development but their proper implementation is not done and farmers are not able to derive the required benefit. So for this efficient and dedicated officers with agricultural background should post for proper implementation of these policies.
(xii) Decreased Pressure of Population:
The pressure of population on land should be decreased. More industrial units should be set up to absorb the disguised unemployment of agriculture. Population control measures should be followed.
(xiii) Mechanised Farming:
Farmers should be educated for adopting mechanised farming. Kisan Melas (Farmers’ Fair) should be organized. In these Melas Agricultural tools and implements and new variety of seeds should be displayed. Farmer should be given knowledge about these inputs.
(xiv) Scientific Cultivation:
Various scientific methods of cultivation should be employed to increase production. Farmers should adopt techniques like rotation of crops, use of fertilizers, pesticides. Farmers using new teclmiques must be encouraged. More research on the crops, seeds and fertilizers will be useful.
(xv) Tenancy Reforms:
For the development of agriculture, tenancy reforms are much needed. Land rent should be fixed. Work without remuneration Begar should not be taken from tenants. Cultivators should not be evicted till they pay rent.