1. In the field of Economics:
The role of statistics is very vital in Economics. Long ago it has been of enormous use in this subject. In 1926 Fisher mentioned,
“The painful misapprehension is that statistics is a branch of economics.”
He not only complained about it but emphasised that statistics in totality is Economics. Economics cannot be successful without statistics.
We think of any part of Economics and cannot proceed without Statistics; May it be demand, supply, wages, interest, prices, profits, rents savings, investments, unemployment etc. Various laws such as law of consumption, of returns or distribution of incomes and profits are often used in Economics. We use it in Economics in measurement of correlation, analysing demand and supply, forecasting through regression, interpolation and time series analysis. We also use Index Numbers.
2. In the field of Planning:
Planning is mainly a part of economics. We have to make different planning for different components for different periods. In almost all the spheres, whether those are individual, joint or any government decisions, nothing can be done without success and success cannot be attained without planning and planning cannot be undertaken without statistics.
Adequacy of data cannot be proved without statistics. To go for an economic plan in a country, the data about population, consumption, prices, investments, saving, incomes and expenditure has to be known and then analysed for demand forecasting using various statistical methods. A plan cannot be successful if its analysis is not undertaken properly.
3. In the field of Business and Commerce:
These are the activities such as, trading, manufacturing, banking, transportation, mining, insurance or such other activities, those are undertaken for making profits. Statistics helps us to great extent in planning, analysing and executing the plans. To analyse the plans we have to use methods of statistics such as probability or forecasting by regression, time series or interpolation.
Economic barometers (Index numbers) are also used, which are also the gifts of statistics. A manufacturer has to get the help of forecasting for his production in coming years. Similarly a new entrant has also to analyse the demand and supply both to find a gap so that production supplied by him may be easily sold in the market to earn adequate profits.
4. In the field of State Administration:
As was stated on the first page during introduction that it was a science of the kings which meant that it was a kind of science, which proved useful in the administration of the state through its use. It became an important tool in the hands of administration. Various department of a government use it for their benefits and proper success of the departments held. Defence ministry has to keep the data of number of armed personals in various segments such as army, navy and air force and similarly the number of persons working in enemy’s services.
5. In the field of Physical and Natural Sciences:
In physical and natural sciences like Physics, Chemistry, Engineering, Botany, Astronomy, Zoology and Medicine etc. the statistics is of immense importance these days. In Botany and Zoology its use has increased many fold these days. In inheritance of stature, Sir Frances Galton used various methods of analysis in his own work “Regressions”.
Similarly Sir Karl Pearson stated that theory of heredity is also based on statistics. A periodical data of a patient w.r.t temperature, blood Pressure, weight, and heart beats, a doctor decides about the medicines to be given to his patient.
6.In the field of social Sciences:
Not only in the field of natural and physical science but statistics has made much impact on social sciences and is of immense use in these also. These include subjects like History, Political Science, Education, Psychology, Sociology and Logic etc. Even in mathematics, many theories have been drawn from statistics. To name a few, Binomial Method, Linear programming, Probability, Sampling and Least square method are there.
As far as Education is concerned, government opens or allows opening various institutions on the basis of data obtained about number of institutions present, and increasing in population. That means it also plays important part in collection of data about birth and death rate i.e. number of births and deaths during a period. Birth rate also depends upon the no. of marriages taking place each year and other such factors.