The death rate in India has been declining since 1921.
In 1901, the average death rate was 43 per thousand and it declined to 8.5 per thousand in 2000-01.
There are following reasons:
1. Control of Epidemics:
Epidemics such as plague, small pox, TB and malaria which at one time used to cause a toll of heavy deaths, now have been effectively controlled. So death rate has reduced to a large extent.
2. Urbanisation of Population:
In 1911, hardly 10.3 percent of population lived in urban areas. The percentage of population living in towns and cities went up to 26 in 1991 and 27.8 in 2001. Better health, hygiene and sanitation facilities in the town are expected to have lowered the death rate.
3. More Medical Facilities:
Medical facilities have increased in different parts of the country. Communicable diseases like diphtheria, tuberculosis and malaria have been properly controlled. During Five Year plans more than Rs. 2000 crore was spent on medical facilities.
4. Spread of Education:
Literacy among woman is progressing rapidly. Educated women bring up their children with utmost care. This rapidly brings down the infant mortality rate. Working women enjoy better economic status and as such they are healthier.
5. Late Marriage:
Minimum eligible age for marriage has been fixed at 21 years for men and 18 for women by law. It has done away with the evil of early marriage. It has helped in reducing the death rate of women and children.
6. Control over famine:
Besides the famine of 1943, no other serious famine has occurred in this century. Although famine like conditions emerged in 1987 in states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh yet these were effectively combated to cause any serious loss of life.
7. Balanced Diet:
People are now getting more and more nutritive and balanced diet than before. Govt. is also paying more attention to it. This has helped in reducing death rate.
8. Decline in Social Evils:
Due to spread of education several social evils like purdah system, drugging of the female children are on the decline. This has reduced the death rate.
9. Change of habits:
People’s habits have .undergone a quite change. They now pay more Need to health and cleanliness. This has kept the death rate low. In brief decline in death rate has been more than birth rate.