The following are measures taken by Govt. of India.
(a) Experimental Period (1951-61):
According to 1951 census, the population of India was 36.1 crore. India adopted family planning programme in 1952 Rs. 65 lakh was kept for family planning is 1st Five Year Plan. Then health minister Raj Kumari Amrit Kaur advocated ‘rhythm method’ to control family. It implies ‘sex only during safe periods’ Rs. 3 crore was earmarked during 2nd Five Year Plan.
(b) Active Population Control Policy (1961-71):
In 1961, population of India rose to 43.9 crore, Rs. 25 crore was spends during 3rd Five Year Plan. Different methods of contraception had been put into use. India started the production of her own contraceptive ‘Nirodh’. In 1972, parliament passed the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act. Mass Vasectomy Camps were started. Nutrition, maternity and child welfare was brought under the purview of family planning.
(c) National Population Policy:
National population policy was announced in 1976. The main aim of the policy was to reduce the fertility period of reproductive couples. The minimum age of marriage had been raised to 21 years for boys and 18 years for girls.
(d) Family Planning during Emergency:
During emergency (1975-77) family planning programme was implemented forcefully. Compulsory sterilisations were done. 1 crore sterilisation were done. These sterilisations were done forcefully. Many states like U.P., Punjab, Haryana passed legislation for compulsory sterilization.
(e) Janata Party Govt’s Family Welfare Programme:
In 1977, Janata Party’s Govt. under the Prime Minister ship of Sh. Morarji Desai, changed the name of family planning to family welfare. The policy of persuasion rather than compulsion was followed. The policy aimed at reducing the birth rate from 34.5 per thousand to 30 per thousand by 1979.
(f) Policies in 6th, 7th and 8th Plan:
In 6th plan, the target was to reduce the fertility rate from 33 to 21 per thousand and mortality rate from 14 to 9 per thousand.
In seventh plan, the target was to maintain birth rate 29 per thousand. In this period states like Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Kerala performed well.
In 8th plan, the target was to keep the birth rate 26 per thousand.
(g) Policy in the Ninth Plan:
In ninth plan, the target was to limit the growth rate of population to 1.6 by 2001 and to 1.5 by 2011.
According to the Ninth plan, the rapid population growth is due to:
(i) Large size of the population in the reproductive age group.
(ii) Higher fertility due to unmet need for contraception.
(iii) High wanted fertility due to prevailing high infant mortality rate.
Reduction of population growth rate will be achieved by:
(i) Meeting all the felt needs for contraception.
(ii) Reducing the infant and maternal mortality so that there is a reduction in the desired level of fertility.
So according to the Draft Ninth plan, 20 percent population growth can be checked by covering the gap between demand and supply of family welfare services including contraception.
20 percent growth can be checked by reducing the infant mortality rate. More funds were allotted for health, family welfare and nutrition.
(h) New Population Policy:
The new national population policy 2000 was announced by Govt. on 1st February. The main features are as follows:
(i) Redress the unmet needs for basic reproductive and child health services.
(ii) Make school education up to age 14 free and compulsory and reduce drop out at primary and secondary school levels to below 20 percent.
(iii) Reduce infant mortality rate to below 30 per thousand.
(iv) Reduce maternal mortality ratio to below 100 per lakh.
(v) Achieve universal immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases.
(i) National Population Policy of 2002:
In 2002 new national population policy was announced. The main objectives of the plan are listed below:
(i) Make school education up to the age of 14 free and compulsory and to reduce drop out rate.
(ii) Rate of growth of population to be reduced to 1.62 percent per annum.
(iii) Implementation of Reproductive and Child Health Care Programme
(iv) Maternity death rate to be reduced to half.
(v) Infant mortality rate to be reduced to 28 per thousand by 2012.
(vi) To meet all the felt needs of family welfare.