Some of the most important policy measures are as follows!

(1) Technological Measures:

Measures are taken to increase agricultural production substantially to meet the growing needs of the population and also to provide a base for industrial development including steps to increase both extensive cultivation and intensive cultivation.

(2) Land reforms:

Land reform measures are taken to abolish intermediatory interests in land (viz. Zamindars, Jagirdars etc.) and transfer of land to actual tiller of the soil were expected to be taken up on a priority basis.

Measures taken under this head are:


(i) Abolition of intermediaries,

(ii) tenancy reform to (a) regulate rents paid by tenants to landlord, (b) provide security of tenure to tenants, (c) confer ownership rights on tenants and

(iii) Imposition of ceiling on holdings in a bid to procure land for distribution among landless labourers and marginal farmers. These land reform measures are taken to irradiate the parasitic class of Zamindars.

(3) Cooperation and consolidation of holdings:

To prevent fragmentation of holdings, Indian agricultural policy introduced the programmes of cooperation and consolidation of holdings. Latter programmes aimed at consolidating plots owned by a particular farmer in different places of village by sanctioning land at one place of equal area or value to his plot of land.


This avoids wastage of time and energy employed in cultivation and he can practise scientific technique of production. Cooperation aims at uniting small and marginal farmers together to reap the harvest of large scale farming. Under cooperative farming small and middle class farmers use their land and resources and practise joint cultivation.

(4) Institution involving peoples’s participation in planning:

No planning is possible without the cooperation of the masses. Nothing is possible unless the masses are encouraged to join hands with the planning authorities for the betterment of the plans and programmes. The programme of community development that was initiated in 1952 was aimed to be a project of the people, by the people and for the people. The role of the government and administrative authority was defined as ‘to help the people’ to help themselves.

The experience of the community development programme reads a sad story. The programme of democratic decentralization, commonly known as Panchayat Raj, proved to be worse. The local ‘dadas’ and political elements exploited the masses to their advantage.

(5) Institutional credit:

Another important measure was expansion of institutional credits to farmers through cooperative and commercial banks. After nationalisation of banks in 1969, nationalised banks have paid increasing attention to the needs of agriculture. Regional Rural Banks were also set up to deal specially, with the needs of agricultural credit.


A National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) was also set up. As a result, credit facilities were available to the farmers, the importance of money lenders has declined and exploitation of farmers at the hands of moneylenders is reduced.

(6) Procurement and support prices:

Announcement of procurement of support prices to ensure fair returns to the farmers so that even in years of surplus the prices do not tumble down and farmers do not suffer loss. In fact the policy of the commission for agricultural cost and price in recent years has been to announce fairly high prices in a bid to provide incentive to farmers to expand production.

(7) Input subsidies to agriculture:

The government has provided massive subsidies to farmers on agricultural inputs like irrigation, fertilizers and power. The objectives of input sub-sidisation are to increase agricultural! production and productivity by encouraging the use of modern inputs in agriculture. Under this policy various inputs are given to the farmers at a sub-sidised rate.

(8) Food security system:

To provide food grains and other essential good to consumers at cheap and sub-sidised rate, the Government of India has built up an elaborate food security system in the form of Public Distribution System during the planning period. It operates as a ‘safety net’ by maintaining the stock of food grain in order to fight the shortage of food.

(9) Rural Employment Programmes:

To provide purchasing power to the poor, rural employment the programmes are needed. Government introduced poverty alleviation programmes from the Fourth Plan onwards like Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA), Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labour Development Agency (MFAL), National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Rural Landless: Employment Guarantee Programme (RLECP) Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (jRY), Jawahar Crami Samriddhi Yojana for 5 years (JCSY), Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SCRY) etc.