Population of India is quite large and rapidly increasing. One percent growth rate means an addition of 1 crore people every year but actually speaking 2 crore persons are being adding every year.
So effective population control measures is the need of the hour. We know that birth rate is mainly responsible for rapid population growth.
Hence measures which can reduce the birth rate should be adopted. These measures can be classified into 3 heads.
A. Social Measure:
Population explosion is a social problem and it is deeply rooted in the society. So efforts must be done to remove the social evils in the country.
1. Minimum age of Marriage:
As fertility depends on the age of marriage. So the minimum age of marriage should be raised. In India minimum age for marriage is 21 years for men and 18 years for women has be fixed by law. This law should be firmly implemented and people should also be made aware of this through publicity.
2. Raising the Status of Women:
There is still discrimination to the women. They are confined to four walls of house. They are still confined to rearing and bearing of children. So women should be given opportunities to develop socially and economically. Free education should be given to them.
3. Spread of Education:
The spread of education changes the outlook of people. The educated men prefer to delay marriage and adopt small family norms. Educated women are health conscious and avoid frequent pregnancies and thus help in lowering birth rate.
Some parents do not have any child, despite costly medical treatment. It is advisable that they should adopt orphan children. It will be beneficial to orphan children and children couples.
5. Change in Social Outlook:
Social outlook of the people should undergo a change. Marriage should no longer be considered a social binding. Issueless women should not be looked down upon.
6. Social Security:
More and more people should be covered under-social security schemes. So that they do not depend upon others in the event of old age, sickness, unemployment etc. with these facilities they will have no desire for more children.
B. Economic Measures:
The following are the economic measures:
1. More employment opportunities:
The first and foremost measure is to raise, the employment avenues in rural as well as urban areas. Generally in rural areas there is disguised unemployment. So efforts should be made to migrate unemployed persons from rural side to urban side. This step can check the population growth.
2. Development of Agriculture and Industry:
If agriculture and industry are properly developed, large number of people will get employment. When their income is increased they would improve their standard of living and adopt small family norms.
3. Standard of Living:
Improved standard of living acts as a deterrent to large family norm. In order to maintain their higher standard of living people prefer to have a small family. According to A.K. Das Gupta those who earn less than Rs. 100 per month have on the average a reproduction rate of 3.4 children and those who earn more than Rs. 300 per month have a reproduction rate of 2.8 children.
It is on record that people in urban areas have low birth rate than those living in rural areas. Urbanisation should therefore be encouraged.
C. Other Measures:
The following are the other measures:
1. Late Marriage:
As far as possible, marriage should be solemnized at the age of 30 years. This will reduce the period of reproduction among the females bringing down the birth rate. The govt. has fixed the minimum marriage age at 21 yrs. for males and 18 yrs. for females.
2. Self Control:
According to some experts, self control is one of the powerful methods to control the population. It is an ideal and healthy approach and people should be provided to follow. It helps in reducing birth rate.
3. Family Planning:
This method implies family by choice and not by chance. By applying preventive measures, people can regulate birth rate. This method is being used extensively; success of this method depends on the availability of cheap contraceptive devices for birth control. According to Chander Shekher, “Hurry for the first child, Delay the second child and avoid the third.”
4. Recreational Facilities:
Birth rate will likely to fall if there are different recreational facilities like cinema; theatre, sports and dance etc. are available to the people.
The communication media like T.V., radio and newspaper are the good means to propagate the benefits of the planned family to the uneducated and illiterate persons especially in the rural and backward areas of country.
The govt. can give various types of incentives to the people to adopt birth control measures. Monetary incentives and other facilities like leave and promotion can be extended to the working class which adopts small family norms.
7. Employment to Woman:
Another method to check the population is to provide employment to women. Women should be given incentive to give services in different fields. Women are taking active part in competitive examinations. As a result their number in teaching, medical and banking etc. is increasing rapidly. In brief by taking, all there measures we can control the growth of population.