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Job Analysis: Meaning, Concept, Purposes, Contents, Process and Methods

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In this article we will discuss about job analysis! Learn about:-

1. Introduction to Job Analysis 2. Meaning of Job Analysis 3. Definitions 4. Concept 5. Contents 6. Objectives 7. Purposes

8. Process 9. Methods 10. Functions 11. Significance 12. Areas 13. Advantages 14. Competency Approach and Other Details.


HR Guide to Job Analysis: Intro, Meaning, Process and Methods

Job Analysis – Introduction:

In a country like India, jobs are very important to individuals. They help to determine standards of living, places of residence, status and even one’s sense of self-worth. They are important to organizations also because they are the means of accomplishing organizational objectives. Traditionally, organizations used to define jobs in a rigid way.

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A job was that what it requires does not change; it is designed to be immutable and unchanging, irrespective of the various incumbents performing them. In real world, however, jobs are not static; they are subject to change.

Technological advancements and competition may compel an organization to put more stress on features of successful performance rather than on standard job duties, tasks etc. The job is what the incumbent makes of it. To properly understand the dynamic nature of jobs, managers gather information about jobs from time to time.


Job Analysis Meaning:

Job analysis is a systematic and detailed examination of jobs. It is the process of collecting information about a job — that is, the knowledge, skills, and the experience needed to carry out a job effectively. The jobholder is supposed to possess job-related knowledge useful to carry out the job easily.

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He must possess relevant skills to put the knowledge into practice quickly and effectively. He should have the ability to understand how the tools, equipment, materials, resources, machines need to be deployed in order to produce results. Only after a careful examination of the requirements of job, the job incumbent’s qualifications are generally determined.

In other words, job analysis refers to the anatomy of the job. It is a complete study of job, embodying every known and determinable factor, including the duties and responsibilities involved in its performance, the conditions under which the performance is carried on, the nature of the task, the qualities required in the worker, and such conditions of employment as pay hour, opportunities and privileges. It also emphasises the relation of one job to others in the organisation.


Job AnalysisDefinitions:

(1) According to Edwin B. Flippo – “Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. The immediate products of this analysis are job descriptions and job specifications.”

(2) Further, David A. De Cenzo and Stephen P. Robbins has defined “job analysis is a systematic exploration of the activities within a job. It is a basic technical procedure, one that is used to define the duties, responsibilities and accountabilities of a job.”

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(3) Herbert G. Hereman III has said “A job analysis is a collection of tasks that can be performed by a single employee to contribute to the production of some product or service provided by the organisation. Each job has certain ability requirements (as well as certain rewards) associated with it. It is the process used to identify these requirements.”

Therefore, it can be said safely that “job analysis can be described as a process of collecting information about a job.”


Job Analysis – Concept:

Job analysis is essentially a process of collecting and analyzing data relating to a job in an organization. It refers to a scientific and systematic analysis of a job in order to obtain all pertinent facts about the job. Job analysis has been defined as “the process of determining by observing and study the tasks, which comprise the job; the methods and equipments used, and the skills and attitudes required for successful performance of the job.”

Edwin B. Flippo has defined job analysis as “the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. The immediate products of this analysis are job descriptions and job specifications”.

Job analysis provides the following information about a job:

i. Nature of jobs required in a concern;

ii. Nature of organizational structure;

iii. Type of people required to fit that structure;

iv. The relationship of a job with other jobs in a concern;

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v. Kind of qualifications required for a particular job;

vi. Provision of physical condition to support the activities of a concern;

vii. Materials, equipments and methods used in performing the job.


Job AnalysisContents:

A job analysis provides the following information:

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(i) Job identification- Its title, including its code number;

(ii) Significant characteristics of a job- Its location, physical setting, supervision, union jurisdiction, hazards and discomforts;

(iii) What the typical worker does- Specific operation and tasks that make up an assignment, their relative timing and importance, their simplicity, routine or complexity, the responsibility or safety of others for property, funds, confidence and trust;

(iv) Which materials and equipment a worker uses- Metals, plastics, grains, yarns, milling machines, punch presses and micrometers;

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(v) How a job is performed- Nature of operation – lifting, handling, cleaning, washing, feeding, removing, drilling, driving, setting up and many others;

(vi) Required personnel attributes- Experience, training, apprenticeship, physical strength, co-ordination or dexterity, physical demands, mental capabilities, aptitudes, social skills;

(vii) Job relationship- Experience required, opportunities for advancement, patterns of promotions, essential co-operation, direction, or leadership from and for a job.

It is obvious from the foregoing that a job analysis is usually a clear indication of a job description and job specification.


Job Analysis – Objectives:

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The main objectives of job analysis are as follows:

i. Work Simplification:

Job analysis provides the information related to job and this data can be used to make process or job simple. Work simplification means dividing the job into small parts i.e. different operations in a product line or process which can improve the production or job performance.

ii. Setting Up of Standards:

Standard means minimum acceptable qualities or results or performance or rewards regarding a particular job. Job analysis provides the information about the job and standard of each can be established using this information.

iii. Support to Personnel Activities:

Job analysis provides support to various personnel activities like recruitment, selection, training and development, wage administration, performance appraisal, etc.


Job AnalysisPurposes:

A comprehensive JA programme is an essential ingredient of sound personnel management. It is the major input to forecasting future human resource requirements, job modifications, job evaluation, determination of proper compensation, and the writing of job evaluation, determination of proper compensation, and the writing of job descriptions.

It is of fundamental importance to manpower management programmes because of the wider applicability of its results. The information provided by JA is useful, if not essential, in almost every phase of employee relations.

1. Organisation and Manpower Planning:

It is helpful in organisation planning, for it defines labour needs in concrete terms and co-ordinates the activities of the workforce, and clearly divides duties and responsibilities.

2. Recruitment, Selection:

By indicating the specific requirements of each job (i. e., the skills and knowledge), it provides a realistic basis for the hiring, training, placement, transfer and promotion of personnel. “Basically, the goal is to match the job requirements with a worker’s aptitude, abilities and interests. It also helps in charting the channels of promotion and in showing lateral lines of transfer.

3. Wage and Salary Administration:

By indicating the qualifications required for doing a specified job and the risks and hazards involved in its performance, it helps in salary and wage administration. Job analysis is used as a foundation for job evaluation.

4. Job Reengineering:

Job analysis provides information which enables us to change jobs in order to permit their being manned by personnel with specific characteristics and qualifications.

This takes two forms:

(a) Industrial engineering activity, which is concerned with operational analysis, motion study, work simplification methods and improvement in the place of work and its measurement, and aims at improving efficiency, reducing unit labour costs, and establishing the production standard which the employee is expected to meet; and

(b) Human engineering activity, which takes into consideration human capabilities, both physical and psychological, and prepares the ground for complex operations of industrial administration, increased efficiency and better productivity.

5. Employee Training and Management Development:

Job analysis provides the necessary information to the management of training and development programmes. It helps to determine the content and subject matter of in-training courses. It also helps in checking application information, interviewing, weighing test results, and in checking references.

6. Performance Appraisal:

It helps in establishing clear-cut standards which may be compared with the actual contribution of each individual.

7. Health and Safety:

It provides an opportunity for identifying hazardous conditions and unhealthy environmental factors so that corrective measures may be taken to minimise and avoid the possibility of accidents.

In sum, it may be noted that job analysis is a systematic procedure for securing and reporting the information which defines a specific job. It has many uses in the management of personnel. It determines the qualifications required for a job; provides guidance in recruitment and selection; evaluates current employees for transfer or promotion; and establishes the requirements for training programmes.

It is used as a foundation for job evaluation and helps in employee development by means of appraisal and counseling; for establishing improved methods of analysing problems of health, safety and fatigue; it functions as a guide in connection with discipline and grievances and as a basis for transfers, lay-offs and as a basis of comparison of the pay rates obtaining in other organisations; and it establishes workloads and job assignments.

It also helps in redesigning the jobs to improve operational performance or to enrich job content and employee improvement. Managers may develop ways of giving their employees an increased sense of personnel accomplishment and control over themselves and their work.

JA produces four kinds of documentation and procedures that are crucial to personnel activities:

(i) Job description;

(ii) Job specification;

(iii) Job evaluation, and

(iv) Personnel assessment.

In turn, the procedures and documentation are basic inputs for diverse personnel functions.


Job Analysis – Process (How to Conduct Job Analysis?):

How to conduct job analysis? We should perform eight steps as follows for conducting job analysis.

These are mentioned below:

Step 1- Identify Purpose of Job Analysis:

First of all we should identify the purpose of job analysis. Otherwise we will not be able to collect all the pertinent information concerning job analysis and job analysis methods.

Step 2- Selection of Analyst:

We have to choose analyst to whom responsibilities will be assigned for job analysis. The analysts will be taken from professional human resource, line managers, incumbents or consultants.

Step 3- Selection of Method:

We will select representative positions to analyze because it may not be necessary to analyze all jobs and there may be too many similar jobs to analyze. After selecting representative jobs we must identify the appropriate method which is the best one in order to analyze a particular job.

Step 4 -Train the Analyst:

If we use internal analyst then we have to give them appropriate training so that they can use the selected methods of job analysis in an efficient and effective way.

Step 5- Preparation of Job Analysis:

It includes communicate the project in the organization and preparing the documentation.

Step 6- Collection of Data:

Job analysts will collect data relating to job activities, employee behaviours, working conditions, human traits and abilities to perform the job, etc.

Step 7- Review and Verify:

Analysts must verify the collected data to confirm that the information is factually correct and complete.

Step 8- Develop a Job Description and Job Specification:

Develop a job description and job specification from the job analysis information. A job description is a written statement that describes the activities and responsibilities of the job, working conditions, safety and hazards. A job specification summarizes the personal qualities, traits, skills, and background required for getting the job done.


Job Analysis – Methods:

Methods of collecting job analysis information include direct observation, work method analysis, critical incident technique, interview and questionnaire method.

These are given below:

1. Direct Observation Method:

Direct Observation is a method of job analysis to observe and record behaviour / events / activities / tasks / duties when the worker or group engaged in doing the job. Observation method can be effective only when the job analyst is skilled enough to know what is to be observed, how to analyze, and what is being observed.

2. Work Method Analysis:

Work methods analysis is used to describe manual and repetitive production jobs, such as factory or assembly-line jobs. Work methods analysis includes time and motion study and micro-motion analysis.

3. Critical Incident Technique:

Critical incident technique is a method of job analysis used to identify work behaviours that classify in good and poor performance. Under this method, jobholders are asked to describe critical incidents concerning the job and the incidents so collected are analyzed and classified according to the job areas they describe.

4. Interview Method:

Interview method is a useful tool of job analysis to ask questions to both incumbents and supervisors in either an individual or a group setting. Interview includes structured interviews, unstructured interview, and open-ended questions.

5. Questionnaire Method:

It includes 6 techniques, which are as follows:

a. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ Model):

PAQ model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis. It developed by Mc Cormick, Jeanneret, and Mecham (1972), is a structured instrument of job analysis to measure job characteristics and relate them to human characteristics. It consists of 195 job elements that describe generic human work behaviours.

b. Functional Job Analysis (FJA Model):

FJA model is a technique of job analysis that was developed by the Employment and Training Administration of the United States Department of Labour. It includes 7 scales (numbers) that measure- 3 worker-function scales- measure percentage of time spent with: data, people, things; 1 worker-instruction scale; 3 scales that measure reasoning, mathematics, and language.

c. Work Profiling System (WPS Model):

WPS model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis, is a computer-administered system for job analysis, developed by Saville & Holds worth, Ltd.

d. MOSAIC Model:

MOSAIC model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis used to collect information from incumbents and supervisors. It contains 151 job tasks rated in terms of importance for effective job performance and 22 competencies rated in terms of importance, and needed proficiency at entry.

e. Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ Model):

CMQ model is a technique of job analysis that was developed by Harvey as a “worker-oriented” job analysis instrument designed to have applicability to a broad range of exempt and nonexempt jobs. It includes 41 general questions of background section, 62 questions of contacts with people, 80 items of decision making, 53 items of physical and mechanical activities, 47 items of work setting.

f. Fleishman Job Analysis System (FJAS Model):

FJAS model is a technique of job analysis that describes jobs from the point of view of the necessary capacities. It includes 52 cognitive, physical, psycho-motor, and sensory ability; each of the categories consists of two parts – an operational and differential definition and a grading scale.


Job Analysis – Functions:

The job analysis provides the following function:

(1) Job identification- Its title, including its code number.

(2) Significant characteristics of a job- Its location, physical setting, supervision, union jurisdiction, hazards and discomforts.

(3) What the typical worker does? This part of information includes specific operations and tasks to be performed by the typical worker including their relative timing and importance, their simplicity, routine or complexity, the responsibility for others, etc.

(4) Job duties- A detailed list of duties along with the probable frequency of occurrence of each duty.

(5) What materials and equipment the worker uses? Metals, plastics, grains, yarn or lathes, milling machines testers, punch presses and micrometers.

(6) How a job is performed? Emphasis here is on the nature of operations like lifting, handling, cleaning, washing, feeding, removing, drilling, driving, setting up and the like.

(7) Required Personal Attributes – These include experience, training undertaken, apprenticeship, physical strength, coordination or dexterity, physical demands, mental capabilities, aptitudes, social skills, etc.

(8) Job Relationship – This includes opportunities for advancement, patterns of promotions, essential co-operation, etc.

Job analysis also provides the information relating to mental skills, working conditions, hazards, education, vocational preparation, etc.

Sources of Job Analysis Information:

Information about job analysis may be obtained from three principal sources.

They are:

(a) From the employees who actually perform a job;

(b) From other employees such as supervisors and foremen who watch the workers while doing a job and thereby acquire knowledge about it; and

(c) From outside observers specially appointed to watch employees performing a job. Such outside persons are called the trade job analysts. Sometimes, special job reviewing committees are also established.


Job Analysis – Significance:

1. Facilitates Manpower Planning:

Job analysis is the qualitative aspect of manpower requirements. It determines the demands of the job in terms of responsibilities and duties and then translates these demands into skills, qualities and other human attributes.

It determines the quantum of work which an average person can perform on the job in a day. It facilitates the division of work into different jobs. Thus, it is an essential element of manpower planning as it matches jobs with men.

2. Helps Recruitment, Selection and Placement:

In order to hire the right person on a job, it is essential to know the requirements of the job and the qualities of the individual who will perform it. The information regarding these is procured from job description and job specifications respectively. These help the management in matching the job requirements as closely as possible with workers’ aptitudes, abilities, interests, etc. It facilitates the execution of employment programme.

3. Determines Training and Development Needs:

Job analysis determines the levels of standards of job performance. It helps in administering the training development programmes. Job descriptions and job specifications are written documents. If the contents of these two documents are known to the employees, they will try to acquire the skills and knowledge required to perform the task assigned to them efficiently.

They may also prepare themselves for the higher post in the light of the job description and the job specifications. The same information may be used by those who administer the training and development programmes for determining the contents and subject matter needed in such programmes.

4. Determines Job Evaluation:

Job evaluation aims at determining the relative worth of the job which helps in determining the compensation of job. These jobs are evaluated in terms of money. An accurate and comprehensive set of job descriptions and the job specifications forms of factual basis for evaluating the worth of the job.

5. Provides Data for Performance Appraisal:

Job analysis data provide a clear-cut standard of performance for every job. The performance of employee can be appraised objectively with the standard of job performance so established. A supervisor may very easily compare the contribution of each man with the set standards.

6. Helps Job Designing:

Industrial engineers may use the job analysis information in designing the job by making the comprehensive study of the job elements. It helps in time and motion study, work-specifications, methods and workplace improvement and work-measurement. Human engineering activities such as physical, mental and psychological actions are studied with the help of job analysis information.

7. Ensures Safety and Health:

The job analysis process uncovers the hazardous and unhealthy environmental factors such as heat, noise, fumes, dust, etc. related with the jobs. The management may take corrective measures to minimize the chances of risks to ensure safety to workers and avoid unhealthy conditions.

8. Maintains Discipline:

Job analysis provides the information regarding characteristics of various jobs and the job-holders. It studies the failure of the workman to meet the required standard of performance. Corrective measures may be taken in time to avoid untoward situations. In this way it helps in maintaining the discipline in the industry.


Job Analysis – Areas:

Job analysis should collect information on the following areas:

i. Duties and Tasks- The basic unit of a job is the performance of specific tasks and duties. Information to be collected about these items may include frequency, duration, effort, skill, complexity, equipment, standards, etc.

ii. Environment- This may have a significant impact on the physical requirements to be able to perform a job. The work environment may include unpleasant conditions such as offensive odours and extreme temperatures. There may also be definite risks to the incumbent such as noxious fumes, radioactive substances, hostile and aggressive people, and dangerous explosives.

iii. Tools and equipment- Some duties and tasks are performed using specific equipment and tools. Equipment may include protective clothing. These items need to be specified in job analysis.

iv. Relationships- Supervision given and received, relationships with internal or external people, etc. have to be detailed in job analysis.

v. Requirements- The knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) required to perform the job must be clearly defined. While an incumbent may have higher KSA than those required for the job, a job analysis typically only states the minimum requirements to perform the job.


Job Analysis – Advantages:

Job analysis is an important element of human resource management. Most information can be taken by human resource manager with the help of job analysis.

The main advantages of job analysis are given below:

i. Job analysis helps the personnel manager at the time of recruitment and selection of right man on right job;

ii. It helps human resource manager to understand extent and scope of training required in that field;

iii. It helps in evaluating the relative worth of different jobs;

iv. It also helps to chalk out the compensation plans for the employees;

v. It also helps the personnel manager to undertake performance appraisal effectively in a concern;

vi. Job analysis reveals unhealthy and hazardous environmental and operational conditions in various jobs;

vii. Job analysis provides pertinent information to both management and trade unions for collective bargaining;

viii. Job analysis provides necessary information for effective human resource planning.


Job Analysis Competency Approach:

Jobs have to be structured, keeping the unique requirements of the situation in mind. Jobs need not always be structured in a rigid manner. In fact, as most writers are suggesting, they need to be designed keeping the jobholders’ demands in mind.

For instance, when you downsize, you may ask employee X to handle the job of Y who is shown the door. When you need to cut costs you may have to merge jobs with more or less similar duties and responsibilities. The job of a typist may be merged with that of an office assistant.

The pressures to go lean may compel a firm to work with fewer and fewer hands as years roll by. Instead of concentrating on a single job, the same employee may be asked to handle different jobs with more or less similar job duties and responsibilities. It would be admirable if we pick up employees possessing transferable skills and knowledge at the entry level itself so that when the need arises, you can roll them on different jobs comfortably.

In fact, in such a scenario, workers can exercise self-control and self-direction, instead of being forced to handle jobs with watertight compartmentalisation. There is, therefore, growing demand for workers who are able to seamlessly move job to job, exercising self-direction and self-control, utilising their competencies fully.

Competencies are nothing but observable and measurable behaviours of a person that help him carry out the job effectively. Competency-based analysis means describing a job in terms of measurable, observable, behavioural competencies that an employee doing the job must exhibit to do well (for example requiring a software engineer to design complex software programme).

Why Competency Analysis?

Traditional job analysis is always job focused — that is, on the KSAs (knowledge, skills and abilities) required to perform specific jobs — and examines the linkages among those jobs. It is oriented toward what needs to be done in terms of duties and responsibilities. It may not produce results when the organisation actually demands high performance from employees.

Employees not thinking beyond the box or unwilling to take up activities not pertaining to their own narrow specialty may actually spoil the show. Employees who are not willing to learn and are plagued by “that’s not my job” attitude may turn out mediocre performance in the end. Competency analysis, on the other hand, is worker-focused that is, what an employee must possess in terms of core competencies and specific competencies to complete the task.

Core competencies here refer to characteristics that every member of the organisation regardless of position, function or level of responsibility within the organisation is expected to possess. Specific competencies are characteristics shared by different positions within an organisation.

Competency models focus more on how the worker is able to meet the job’s objectives and actually accomplishes the work. They talk about personality and value orientations (e.g., risk taking) into the mix of what is needed to ‘fit in’ and succeed in the culture of a particular organisation (Sanchez).

Limitations:

There is, of course, widespread opposition to competency approaches. Schippmann et al. argued that they are as broad and ill-defined as to be of little practical use in guiding performance of job duties. Another criticism is that competency models focus on behaviours than results, and as such focus on how individuals are expected to perform and not their demonstrated achievements.

Further, the word competency itself is often loosely interpreted to include many things. Research shows that managers and workers have different perceptions about the competencies and skills associated with various jobs in organisations. The main discrepancies between managers and workers exist in their different perceptions of ‘workplace autonomy’ and ‘level of required skills’.

What is required for successful performance in a job is also open to doubt and remains unexplained. HR practitioners, academics and even trade unions do not expect the so-called ill-defined approaches to have a long life in actual practice (F. Green; J. Sandberg).


Job Analysis and Total Quality Management (TQM):

The latest thinkers of management have given a new thought of TQM. i.e. Total Quality Management. After the word MBO (Management by Objectives) this word TQM (Total Quality Management) is also gaining ground. TQM implies total commitment to quality.

Principles or Essential Features of TQM:

Michael Armstrong – in his book has given the following essential features of TQM:

(1) Creation of a common company theme;

(2) Creation of customer’s mentality. In this opinion customer is a king and his mentality must be studied.

(3) Improvement in the job is becoming a part of the job.

(4) Each function of the job must be studied and re-assessed as its purpose.

(5) Improvement becoming a continuous process.

(6) There must be improvement in the various systems of communications.

(7) Bureaucracy activities must be reduced.

If a close and thorough study of the principles of TQM is made it can be said that TQM calls for a new orientation and a broad perspective on the part of every employee. For example – a typist in an office can no longer be confined only to typing letters as stipulated in his / her job description. He / she must look beyond his / her job requirement and consider the entire office as his / her area of operation.

This example can be extended and introduced to other jobs also. In the TQM dispensation, almost everybody will be required to attend to every task, the ultimate goal being the offer of better quality of products or services.

It is argued that with the advent of TQM the job analysis is losing its relevance. But large numbers of eminent authors are of this opinion that TQM or no TQM, job analysis is useful in as much as it stipulates the tasks to be performed by the job holder. What needs to be done, to maintain job analysis under TQM is to make job description which contains basic tasks of job leaving scope for additional duties.


Job Analysis – Notes:

Job Analysis could be a powerful source of competitive advantage. It helps the organisation to structure jobs in terms of exact requirement. The organisation can forecast human resource requirements very clearly. Depending on the knowledge, skills and experience of jobholders, a systematic promotion and transfer policy could also be instituted with east and comfort.

Job analysis helps a firm to carry out the hiring process in an equitable manner. The right man could be put at the right place and at the right time. Exciting growth opportunities could be thrown open to deserving candidates. This helps people with relevant qualifications to upgrade their skills and talents from time to time.

Those who are not able to run the race could be picked up for special coaching and counseling. Systematic performance appraisals could also be put in place in order to separate the winners from the mediocre ones. Job analysis, thus, helps an organisation to carry out every job-related activity in a systematic and careful manner. It could bring in immense benefits in the form of employee satisfaction and improved morale.

Potential Problems with Job Analysis:

It should however, be noted that job analysis could suffer in the absence of consistent support and continued blessings from top management. Much of its usefulness is dependent on the methods deployed to collect job-related data and information.

Sometimes, the jobholders may not come out with accurate data simply because they are not aware of its usefulness or relevance. They may even go to the extent of distorting data deliberately with a view to sabotage the whole process.

Most of these problems could be avoided if management takes care to put everything in black and white especially while describing the job and also laying down the requirements of the job in terms of employee’s skills and qualifications. To ensure accuracy, employees must be informed about everything. They need to be educated about why job analysis is being undertaken at a specific point of time.


Job AnalysisTechniques of Data Collection:

There are several techniques that can be used for the purpose of collection of data.

The important among them are-

(i) Interviews,

(ii) Direct observations,

(iii) Maintenance of long records,

(iv)Questionnaires,

(v) Critical incident technique, etc.

In practice, these techniques may be used individually, or in possible combinations.

(i) Interviews:

There are two types of interviews which can be used for collection of data for job analysis, viz., individual interviews (with groups of employees who do the same job) and supervisory interviews (with one or more supervisors who are thoroughly knowledgeable about the job being analyzed).

(ii) Direct Observation:

Direct observation is particularly useful in jobs that consist primarily of observable physical activity like draftsman, mechanics, etc. One approach to this method is by observing the worker on the job during a complete work cycle. In this process, notes should be taken regarding all the job activities observed. The next stage is interviewing the worker and getting the additional information from him. The other approach is to observe and interview simultaneously.

(iii) Maintenance of Long Records:

In this technique the workers are asked to maintain and keep daily records or list of activities they are doing on that day. For every activity he engages in, the employee records the activity in the list given. This technique provides comprehensive job information and it is much useful when it is supplemented with subsequent interviews.

(iv) Questionnaires:

Many companies use job analysis questionnaires to secure information on job requirement relating to typical duties and tasks, tools and equipments used, etc.

(v) Critical Incident Technique:

The critical incident technique for job analysis is especially useful for scientific analysis, and selection research. In this technique, incidents are short examples of successful or unsuccessful job behaviour. After many incidents are collected they are classified into behavioural categories.

These categories describe specific desired job behaviours and can be useful in recruitment and selection decisions. The job analysis information, thus collected is useful to the personnel department to prepare the forms detailing as job descriptions, job specification and job standards.

There are three important sub-systems in job analysis. They are job description, job specification and employee specification.


Job Analysis – Uses:

A comprehensive job analysis programme can be used as a foundation and as an essential ingredient for all the functions and areas of personnel management and industrial relations.

A brief description of uses of job analysis is as follows:

(1) Employment:

Job analysis is useful as a guide in every phase of employment process like manpower planning, recruitment selections, placement, orientation induction, and in performance appraisal as it gives the information about, duties, tasks and responsibilities, etc.

(2) Organisation Audit:

Job information obtained by job analysis often reveals instances of poor organisation in terms of the factors affecting job design. The analysis process, therefore, constitutes a kind of organisation audit.

(3) Training and Development Programmes:

Description of duties and equipment used is of great help in developing the content of training and development programmes. Needs of training and developing are identified with the help of job description. Further, the training programmes are also evaluated with the standards of job analysis.

(4) Performance Appraisal:

Instead of rating an employee on characteristics such as dependability there is now a tendency toward establishing job goals and appraising the work done toward those goals. In this type of appraisal, a job description is useful in defining the areas in which job goals should be established.

(5) Promotion and Transfer:

Job information helps in charting the channel of promotion and in showing lateral lines of transfer.

(6) Preventing Dissatisfaction and Settling Complaints:

Job information can be used as a standard in preventing and settling complaints related to work load, nature of work, work procedure, etc., alteration or revisions of job description, etc.

(7) Discipline:

Job information can be used as a standard when discipline is being considered for standard performance.

(8) Restriction of Employment Activity for Health Reasons and Early Retirement:

When employees are unable to maintain the standard of job performance due to old age or health hazards, they may opt for early retirement or the organisation may retrench their services.

(9) Wage and Salary Administration:

Job analysis is the basis for job evaluation. Basically wage and salary levels are fixed on the basis of job evaluation which takes into consideration the content of the job in terms of tasks, duties, responsibilities, risks, hazards, etc.

(10) Health and Safety:

Job description provides the information about hazardous and unhealthy conditions, accident prone areas etc.

(11) Induction:

Job description is a standard function as the employee is provided with the information about the job.

(12) Industrial Relations:

A job description is a standard function to solve industrial disputes and to maintain sound industrial relations. If an employee attempts to add or to delete some duties from the ones listed in job description, the standard has been violated. The labour union as well as management’s interest has been violated.

The labour union as well as management is interested in this matter. Controversies often result, and a written record of the standard job description is valuable in resolving such disputes. Despite these uses, job analysis is also a target of criticism.


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