Everything you need to know about job analysis. Job analysis is a systematic and detailed examination of jobs. It is a procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.
Job analysis is the procedure through which you determine the duties and nature of the jobs and the kinds of people who should be hired for their goal. It provides to write job descriptions and job specifications, which are utilized in recruitment and selection, compensation, performance appraisal, and training.
Job analysis is a process of studying, examining and collecting detailed information relating to the components and various operations of job. It is a process of collecting and analysing data relating to a job.
It is defined as the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of the specific job. The immediate products, of this analysis are Job description and Job specification.
1. Meaning and Definition of Job Analysis 2. Concepts of Job Analysis 3. Factors to be Considered in Collection of Data 4. Aspects 5. Importance
6. Information and Its Sources 7. Steps 8. Techniques 9. Questionnaire 10. Competency Approach 11. Uses 12. Advantages 13. Problems.
Job Analysis in HRM – Meaning, Definition, Concept, Methods, Process, Techniques, Uses and Other Details
- Meaning and Definition of Job Analysis
- Concepts of Job Analysis
- Factors to be Considered in Collection of Job Analysis Data
- Aspects of Job Analysis
- Importance of Job Analysis
- Job Analysis Information and Its Sources
- Process of Job Analysis
- Techniques of Job Analysis
- Job Analysis Questionnaire
- Competency Approach of Job Analysis
- Uses of Job Analysis
- Advantages of Job Analysis
- Problems of Job Analysis
Job Analysis in HRM – Meaning and Definition
Job analysis is a systematic and detailed examination of jobs. It is a procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.
Job analysis is the procedure through which you determine the duties and nature of the jobs and the kinds of people who should be hired for their goal. It provides to write job descriptions and job specifications, which are utilized in recruitment and selection, compensation, performance appraisal, and training.
Job analysis is a formal and detailed examination of jobs. It is a systematic investigation of the task, duties and responsibilities necessary to do a job.
A task is a distinct work activity carried out for a distinct purpose. Examples would include type a letter, preparing a lecture, or unloading a mail truck.
A duty is a large work segment consisting of several tasks, related by some sequence of events that are performed by an individual.
A position refers to one or more duties performed by one person in an organization. There are at least as many positions as there are workers in the organization.
Job responsibilities are obligations to perform certain tasks and duties. Thus, job analysis is a procedure and a tool for determining the specified tasks, operations and requirements of each job.
It is a complete study of job, embodying every known and determinable factor, including the duties and responsibilities involved in its performance, the conditions under which the performance is carried on, the nature of the task, the qualities required in the worker and such conditions of employment as pay, hour, opportunities and privileges. It also emphasizes the relation of one job to others in the organization.
Job analysis is a process of studying, examining and collecting detailed information relating to the components and various operations of job. It is a process of collecting and analysing data relating to a job. It is defined as the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of the specific job. The immediate products, of this analysis are Job description and Job specification.
According to Scott, Clother and Spriegel “job analysis is the process of critically evaluating the operations, duties and responsibilities of the job”.
In the words of Yoder “job analysis is the procedure by which the facts with respect to each job are systematically discovered and noted”.
Thus, job analysis is a process of collecting information about the job.
The job analysis may include these activities:
(a) Reviewing the job responsibilities of current employees,
(b) Doing Internet research and viewing sample job descriptions online or offline highlighting similar jobs,
(d) Researching and sharing with companies that have similar jobs, and
(e) Articulation of the most important outcomes or contributions needed from the position.
Job Analysis in HRM – 5 Important Concepts: Job, Job Description, Position Description, Job Specification and Job Design
The important concepts of job analysis are:
In simple language, a job may be understood as a division of total work into packages/positions. According to Dale Yoder, “A job is a collection or aggregation of tasks, duties and responsibilities as a whole, is regarded as a regular assignment to individual employees and which is different from other assignments”.
Thus, a job may be explained as a group of positions involving some duties, responsibilities, knowledge and skills. A job may include many positions. A position is a particular set of duties and responsibilities regularly assigned to an individual.
Job descriptions are written statements that describe the:
(c) Most important contributions and outcomes needed from a position,
(d) Required qualification of candidates, and
(e) Reporting relationship and co-workers of a particular job.
Job descriptions are based on objective information obtained through job analysis, an understanding of the competencies and skills required to accomplish needed tasks, and the needs of the organization to produce work.
Job description clearly identifies and spells out the responsibilities of a specific job. Job descriptions also include information about working conditions, tools, equipment used, knowledge and skills needed, and relationships with other positions.
The best job descriptions are living, breathing documents that are updated as responsibilities change. The best job descriptions do not limit employees, but rather, cause them to stretch their experience, grow their skills, and develop their ability to contribute within their organization.
The Human Resource Director Guide and managers the overall provision of Human Resources services, policies and programs for the entire company.
The major areas directed are:
(a) Recruiting and staffing;
(b) Organizational and space planning;
(c) Performance management and improvement systems;
(d) Organization development;
(e) Employment and compliance to regulatory concerns;
(f) Employee orientation, development, and training;
(g) Policy development and documentation;
(h) Employee relations;
(i) Company-wide committee facilitation;
(j) Company employee and community communication;
(k) Compensation and benefits administration;
(l) Employee safety, welfare, wellness and health;
(m)Charitable giving; and
(n) Employee services and counselling.
The Human Resources Director originates and leads Human Resources practices and objectives that will provide an employee-oriented, high performance culture that emphasizes empowerment, quality, productivity and standards, goal attainment, and the recruitment and on-going development of a superior workforce.
The Human Resource Director coordinates implementation of services, policies, and programs through Human Resources staff; reports to the CEO and serves on the executive management team; and assists and advises company managers about Human Resources issues.
It is a standard of personnel and designates the qualities required for an acceptable performance. It is written record of the requirements sought in an individual worker for a given job. It refers to a summary of the personnel characteristics required for a job. It is a statement of the minimum acceptable human qualities necessary for the proper performance of a job.
Job design is the division of the total task to be performed into the manageable and efficient units- positions, departments and divisions-and to provide for their proper integration. The sub-division of work is both on a horizontal scale with different tasks across the organization being performed by different people and on the vertical scale, in which higher levels of the organization are responsible for the supervision of more people, the co-ordination of sub-groups, more
Job Analysis in HRM – 5 Different Factors to be Considered in Collection of Job Analysis Data: Freedom from Bias, Allaying Anxiety Respondents and a Few Others
The different factors to be considered while collection of job analysis data are:
1. Freedom from Bias (Exaggeration/Hiding of Facts):
Respondents at times tend to exaggerate the facts to show the complexity of their jobs and consequently their mastery over the same. Vice-versa few also tend to hide the facts emanating out of their fear as they suspect that the organization may find him/her incompetent. Both exaggeration and hiding of facts will lead to erroneous data and hence care should be taken by the data collector that such bias do not occur.
2. Allaying Anxiety Respondents:
Some respondents look at this activity with suspicion and think that it may be a management’s covert strategy which may harm them in the long-run. Allaying all such fears and anxieties is very important to ensure correctness and consistency of data.
3. Use of Right Data Collection Method:
Choosing a right data collection method is very important in conducting job analysis. Out of the various methods available the method which suits best must be selected and not necessarily the ‘best method’.
4. Recency Impact:
Respondents tend to talk about their job aspects more which have occurred recently or they have been more involved in the recent past, while ignoring other dimensions. Interviewer must ensure that such errors do not occur and guide the respondents in overcoming this bias.
The commitment of the top management, line functions and finally of the HR department is paramount to ensure the success, of job analysis.
Job Analysis in HRM – Aspects
Aspects of job analysis are brought out as follows:
1. Job analysis establishes the structural- functional delineation of an organisation, according to the classical paradigm of administrative theory.
2. Job analysis deals with responsibilities, defining roles, delineating scope and authority at each level of the organisation.
3. It answers the important utilitarian call of optimizing organisational efficiency through maximising individual capabilities, as per the systems paradigm of organisational theory.
4. It basically deals with job study. It studies very detailed, specific and exhaustive on job.
5. As per scientific management precepts, the job analysis describes work process in detail on physical demands at work, physical conditions of work and also human relations and behavioural
Job Analysis in HRM – Importance of Job Analysis to HR Managers: Work Redesign, Human Resource Planning, Selection, Training and a Few Others
Job analysis is so important to HR managers that it has been called the building block of everything that personnel does.
The fact is that almost every human resource management program requires some type of information that is gleaned from job analysis:
1. Work Redesign:
Often an organization seeks to redesign work to make it more efficient or to improve quality. The redesign requires detailed information about the existing job(s). In addition, preparing the redesign is similar to analyzing a job that does not yet exist.
2. Human Resource Planning:
As planners analyze human resource needs and how to meet those needs, they must have accurate information about the levels of skill required in various jobs, so that they can tell what kinds of human resources will be needed.
To identify the most qualified applicants for various positions, decision makers need to know what tasks the individuals must perform, as well as the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities.
Almost every employee hired by an organization will require training. Any training program requires knowledge of the tasks performed in a job, so that the training is related to the necessary knowledge and skills.
5. Performance Appraisal:
An accurate performance appraisal requires information about how well each employee is performing in order to reward employees who perform well and to improve their performance if it is below standard. Job analysis helps in identifying the behaviours and the results associated with effective performance.
6. Career Planning:
Matching an individual’s skills and aspirations with career opportunities requires that those in charge of career planning know the skill requirements of the various jobs. This allows them to guide individuals into jobs in which they will succeed and be satisfied.
7. Job Evaluation:
The process of job evaluation involves assessing the relative dollar value of each job to the organization in order to set up fair pay structures. If employees do not believe pay structures are fair, they will become dissatisfied and may quit, or they will not see much benefit in striving for promotions. To put dollar values on jobs, it is necessary to get information about different jobs and compare them.
Job analysis is also important from a legal standpoint. The government imposes requirements related to equal employment opportunity. Detailed, accurate, objective job specifications help decision makers comply with these regulations by keeping the focus on tasks and abilities. These documents also provide evidence of efforts made to engage in fair employment practices.
For example, to enforce the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission may look at job descriptions to identify the essential functions of a job and determine whether a disabled person could have performed those functions with reasonable accommodations.
Likewise, lists of duties in different jobs could be compared to evaluate claims under the Equal Pay Act. However, job descriptions and job specifications are not a substitute for fair employment practices.
Besides helping human resource professionals, job analysis helps supervisors and other managers carry out their duties. Data from job analysis can help managers identify the types of work in their units, as well as provide information about the work flow process, so that managers can evaluate whether work is done in the most efficient way.
Job Analysis in HRM – Information Provided and Its Sources
Job analysis information also supports managers as they make hiring decisions, review performance, and recommend rewards.
The job analysis provides the following information:
i. Job Identification – Job title, job code number
ii. Characteristics of the Job – Job location, Physical setting, supervision levels required, union jurisdiction, and hazards associated etc.
iii. Job Duties (Principal activities) – A detailed list of the duties along with the probable frequency of occurrence of each duty.
iv. Equipment and materials used
v. How a Job is done – Focus lies mainly on the nature of operations associated with the job.
vi. Required Personnel Attributes – Experience levels, trainings undertaken, apprenticeships, physical strength, coordination levels, mental capabilities, social skills, communication skills etc.
vii. Job Relationships – Opportunities for advancement, working conditions, essential cooperation etc.
There are mainly five sources of job information which are as follows:
1. Job holders’ questionnaires – Information may be gathered from the job holder personally or through a job questionnaire which should be as short as possible, simple, should explain for what purpose the questionnaire is being used and should be tested before using it.
2. Other employees who know the job – This may include supervisors and foreman who may be given special training and be asked to analyse the job under their supervision.
3. Independent observer – This is the person who observes the employee performing the job. Special job-reviewing committees or technically trained job analysts can be assigned the job and necessary information collected from them.
4. Job incumbent diary or log – If the job incumbent keeps his/her diary or log updated recording his/her job duties, his/her frequency and also when the duties are performed, these can also provide very useful information.
5. Interviews – Information may also be gathered through interviews of the people concerned.
Job Analysis in HRM – 5 Steps Involved in the Process of Job Analysis
Job analysis involves different steps which are described below:
1. Determination of uses of job analysis
2. Strategic choices in job analysis
3. Information collection
4. Information processing, Job description and Job specification.
Step # 1. Determination of Uses of Job Analysis:
Job analysis begins with determination of uses of job analysis. Job analysis has variety of uses. Earlier it was used for recruitment and selection and later its coverage increased. Therefore, before analyzing the job, the organization should define the uses of job analysis.
Because, without knowing the purpose, required information cannot be collected. In large organizations, it is undertaken in comprehensive, systematic and in written form. But in small organizations the process is generally informal and is used for limited purposes.
Step # 2. Strategic Choices in Job Analysis:
There are certain strategic choices with regard to job analysis which are described below:
(a) Employees Involvement:
Before analyzing the job, it is advisable to know the extent of employee’s involvement in the job, because a job holder knows better about the job and it is easy to collect the information about the job from job holders. But the question is whether job holder should be involved in the process as there are every possibilities of inflating the duties and responsibilities of his job by the job holder.
If employees are not involved, they tend to become suspicious about the process undertaken by the organization. Therefore, extent of employees involvement in the job should be understood along with the adverse effect on employees before job is being analyzed. Action should be taken to convince the employees, the object of conducting the job analysis programme and their co-operation should be sought.
(b) Level of Details of Analysis:
Job analysis may be made in-depth or it can be completed without going in to the details. It is therefore necessary to define the level of details of analysis. Generally, objectives and use of analysis determine the level of details of analysis along with nature of job. Job of routine nature with limited responsibilities requires fewer details whereas dynamic and non-repetitive job requires detailed analysis.
(c) Frequency and Timing of Analysis:
Frequency of job analysis and time during which analysis is to be undertaken is also another important factor to be considered while analyzing the job.
Generally job analysis is conducted under the following circumstances:
(i) When an organization is newly established or new job is created in an organization or
(ii) When job restructuring and rationalization is initiated in the organization or
(iii) When there is no relation between job demand and remuneration or
(iv) When there is a change in technology, method & procedure of doing a job.
(d) Past Oriented vs. Future Oriented:
Generally job analysis is made on the basis of past performance. But due to rapid change in the technology a future oriented approach may have to be initiated depending upon the change in the nature of job requirements. Future oriented job analysis allows an organization to initiate the process of acquiring and developing employees in advance. For example in many organizations, typewriters are replaced with computers and organization have to prepare & develop their employees accordingly.
Step # 3. Information Collection:
The next step to be followed in the process of job analysis is information collection for job analysis which involves the following sub steps:
(a) The type of information to be collected
(b) Method to be adopted to collect the information
(c) Persons involved in information collection
(a) Type of Information to be Collected:
In deciding the type of information to be collected, all details about the job need to be gathered. It may be related to description of work like why, when and how, task is performed, machines, tools, and equipment used, job contents, personal requirement of job holder etc.
(b) Method to be Adopted to Collect the Information:
With regard to method to be applied to collect the data, there are several methods like observation, interview method, questionnaires, checklists, technical conference etc. Use of a particular method depends on type of information required for job analysis.
(c) Persons Involved in Information Collection:
Persons generally involved for gathering information are – trained job analysts, supervisors, job incumbents or job holders. Trained job analysts maintain objectivity, consistency in information collection and reporting but intrinsic factors of job may be missed by them. Supervisors ensure speedy collection of information and there will be better familiarity with job contents and contexts but they have time constraints and they lack skill required for job analysis.
Job holders provide information with greater familiarity but their opinion may be biased and they lack skills in providing relevant information for job analysis. However, type of persons to be involved in the process of data collection ultimately depends on the purpose of job analysis and the nature of job to be analyzed.
Step # 4. Information Processing, Job Description and Job Specification:
The last step in the process of job analysis is processing of information collected which involves editing and classification of information in to different relevant components which are helpful in the preparation of job description and job specification. Job description refers to the description of duties, responsibilities, and requirement of a particular job. Job specification is the statement that describes the minimum acceptable qualifications that a job holder should possess to perform the job successfully.
Job Analysis in HRM – Top 4 Methods Used for Job Analysis: Questionnaire Method, Written Narratives, Observations and Interviews
There are a number of methods used for job analysis. These methods are meant to collect data about job.
These are as follows:
Method # 1. Questionnaire:
This is a widely used method for collecting data pertaining to job. The questionnaire is structured in such a fashion that all data about nomenclature of jobs, description of duties, machines and equipment used, working conditions etc. can be collected.
The questionnaire is filled both by employees/subordinates and supervisors. The questionnaire should be very clear, understandable and relevant. If the questionnaire is not able to bring out responses of employees/managers, it should be discarded and fresh questionnaire should be made.
Method # 2. Written Narratives:
In this system, the employee keeps a daily record of major duties performed, marking the time when each task is started and finished. This forms the basis of narratives which become a tool in getting the information relating to different jobs. They may be incomplete and unorganized, thus you need to supplement it with interviews etc.
Method # 3. Observations:
In this method the job analyst personally observes the job while people are doing it. He checks the tasks performed on the job, the pace of work, working condition, job hazards involved etc. in any one work cycle. Based on these observations he makes a job analysis. This method has one major limitation. It is that the analyst has to be very careful about what information to observe and what not to observe. Also after observation, he should know how to analyze.
Method # 4. Interviews:
The analyst in this method personally interviews the employees while they are performing the job. A standard format is used to collect data collected from different employees. The analyst asks standard job related questions. These interviews are often used with observation tool to clarify all questions related to the jobs being analyzed. In this analysis, employees may not always come out with the real information about job but an intelligent analyst has the ability to shift relevant information from irrelevant one.
Pros and Cons of Interviews:
(a) It is very simple and quick method of getting information which might never come through in written.
(b) A very tactful interviewer can take out some information about group/activities informally which are never depicted on organizational charts.
(c) Interviews may reflect dissatisfaction with the job for various monetary or safety reasons which may help management in re-analyzing it.
Cons of Interviews:
(a) There is a tendency among employees to inflate their jobs importance. This leads to a different perception about the job needs of analysts.
(b) Respondents often take interviews as some kind of efficiency evaluation which may affect their pay. Thus, they may tend to exaggerate certain responsibilities of their job and minimize others.
(c) Respondents may include the ability based versions of the statements than simple task statements.
(d) The prudent analysts may not be able to get that information and if he is getting multiple inputs to his questions it may become difficult for him to get the valid responses. It is a very slow process.
Job Analysis in HRM – 4 Types of Questionnaire Used for Analysing Job: Job Related Questionnaire, Position Analysis Questionnaire and a Few Others
Information regarding- (1) Job knowledge, (2) Scope of Responsibility, (3) Work environment, and (4) Personal constraints are, therefore, the required data for a job analysis, which should be collected through a well-designed questionnaire.
The questionnaires used to collect data for job analysis are generally of four types, depending upon the nature of the job, such as:
1. JRQ – Job Related Questionnaire
2. PAQ – Position Analysis Questionnaire
3. MPDQ – Management Position Description Questionnaire
4. FJAQ – Functional Job Analysis Questionnaires.
1. JRQ – (Job Related Questionnaire) – These questions disseminate the data regarding job elements and job complexity for an analysis of the job performance requirements.
2. PAQ – (Position Analysis Questionnaire) – These questions cover six major areas such as type and nature of source of information, mental process applied in performance, physical activities involved to perform, relationship with other jobs/ job and workers, work environment or culture prevailing, and other relevant information for improving job performance.
These data enable the management to scientifically analyze the elements of groups or activities interrelationships into job dimensions.
3. MPDQ – (Management Position Description Questionnaire) – These questions are designed to analyze the managerial jobs and therefore the questions are aimed at collecting all possible information from the managers/executives so as to examine the importance of the job, its significance to the organization or the position and the desired responsibilities and accountabilities for a said job.
4. FJAQ – (Functional Job Analysis Questionnaires) – It is a worker-oriented job analysis where the questions are designed to gather information from the worker in the said job or a similar job in another industry to define the personality required to perform the job in question.
Job Analysis in HRM – Competency Approach
Competency approach of job analysis (also known as competency-based job analysis) is a comparatively newer practice in human resource management. Competency-based job analysis involves analyzing a job in terms of competencies required for performing the job effectively.
Thus, the job is not defined in terms of duties and responsibilities as is done in traditional job analysis but in terms of competencies required. Competency of an individual is the combination of his knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, and interest.
Competency approach of job analysis is based on the assumption that competencies of people influence organizational performance. Therefore, instead of thinking of individuals having jobs that are relatively stable and can be written up into typical job descriptions, it may be more relevant to focus on the competencies used in performing the job.
There are three main reasons why organizations adopt competency approach of job analysis:
1. Communicating needed behaviors throughout the organization.
2. Raising overall competency level of the organization.
3. Emphasizing competencies of people to enhance organizational competitive advantage.
Process of adopting competency approach of job analysis is as follows:
1. A team of senior managers identifies future performance result areas critical to the organization, for example, customer orientation, innovation, employee productivity, etc.
2. Panel groups of individuals having knowledgeable about the jobs in the organization are constituted. This group may include both high- and low-performing employees, supervisors, managers, trainers, and others.
3. A facilitator either from HR department or an outside consultant interviews the panel members to get specific examples of job behaviors and actual occurrences on the jobs.
4. The facilitator develops detailed descriptions of each of the competencies using relevant concepts of behavioral science. This phase provides clarity and specifics so that employees, supervisors, managers, and others in the organization have a clearer understanding of the competencies associated with jobs.
5. The competencies are rated and levels needed to meet them are identified. The competencies are specified for each job.
6. Standards of performance are identified and tied to the jobs. In the light of this, appropriate employee selection screening, training, and compensation processes focusing on competencies are developed and implemented.
Job Analysis in HRM – Top 5 Uses of Job Analysis
A sound job analysis programme is an essential ingredient of good HR management. Job analysis data recorded in the form of job description, provide most valuable information needed to accomplish many of the other personnel.
The uses of job analysis may be summarized below:
(i) It is helpful in forecasting of human resources of the organization.
(ii) For recruiting purposes, job analysis must provide information on personal qualifications necessary to perform job related behaviour.
(iii) It helps for placing right person on the right job at the right time.
(iv) It is used as a foundation for job evaluation.
(v) It provides necessary information to the management for training and development programmes of employees.
(vi) It helps in establishing clear-cut standards for the development of performance appraisal system of the organization.
(vii) It helps management to look objectively at the hazards associated with the machinery and tools required to be handled as well as with the work environment.
(viii) It provides helps in redesigning jobs to match with mental make-up of the employees.
Job Analysis in HRM – 10 Main Advantages
The main advantages of job analysis are:
1. Job analysis facilitates the selection and placement, of right personnel in each job.
2. Management can provide adequate training to the needy employees.
3. Reasonable wage rate is fixed with the help of job analysis.
4. Job analysis helps in job evaluation and merit rating.
5. Job analysis helps the superiors to take timely decisions. The decision may be related to promotion, transfer, selection, etc.
6. Industrial disputes may be put an end to with the help of job analysis.
7. Adequate disciplinary action may be taken by the management.
8. The selection of right personnel ensures job satisfaction and morale among the employees.
9. Job analysis helps in reducing labour turnover, absenteeism and removing inequalities in pay fixation.
10. It provides a basis of performance appraisal and facilitates the control function of the management.
Job Analysis in HRM – 4 Major Problems: Lack of Support from Top Management, Single Method, Lack of Training/Motivation and Distortion of Activities
In job analysis there are several grave problems:
Problem # 1. Lack of Support from Top Management:
In majority of crises little support from top management is received instead of describing in unequivocal words they describe in a roundabout way what an employee is supposed to do in the company and thus create confusion in the minds of employees. The top management should make it clear to all employees that their full and honest participation is crucially important for the process.
Problem # 2. Single Method:
Often, job analyst relies on only one of the methods whereas combination of two or more methods might provide a better idea. Consequently the analysis made by him remains one-sided and incomplete and hence of little useful.
Problem # 3. Lack of Training/Motivation:
Job holders are a great source of information about the job, but they are not trained or motivated to generate quality data for job analysis. Moreover, job holders are rarely made aware of the importance of the data and are never rewarded for providing accurate data.
Problem # 4. Distortion of Activities:
In the absence of training or preparedness job holders tend to submit distorted data, either intentionally or inadvertently. Another reason for the negative attitude is the feeling that “as long as someone does not know precisely what I am supposed to be doing, I am safe”.