Everything you need to learn about the employee selection process. Selection is represented as a series of steps through which job applicants must pass through in order to be hired. Each step is important because at each step, information may be revealed and the decision may lead to disqualification or rejection of the candidate.
A candidate has to pass through these barriers before being placed on the job. In each of these steps, job descriptions are matched against job specifications. When the candidates pass through each step, the total number of perspective employees get reduced, until, finally one individual is hired.
In this article we will discuss about the employee selection process. Learn about:-
1. The Preliminary Screening 2. The Role of Application Blanks or Forms 3. The Meaning, Types and Uses of Psychological Tests 4. Job Interviewing Phase and Interviewing Skills 5. The Usefulness and Limitations of Reference Check 6. Using Physical Examination for Employment Purposes 7. Planning for Induction and Orientation and 8. Evaluating a Selection Program.
Whatever steps an organization utilizes in the selection process, the primary purpose should be the collaboration and verification of information about the candidate.
In setting up the selection process, decisions must be made as to how many of these steps must be used, in what order and how detailed and comprehensive these steps should be in getting pertinent information.
Employee Selection Process: Step by Step Process – From Preliminary Screening to Evaluation
An analysis of the literature and the practices of many companies reveal that a majority of these companies use the following steps in the selection process, especially, the large size companies and those in multinational operations.
These steps are:
1. Preliminary screening or interview
2. The role of application blanks or forms
3. The meaning, types and uses of psychological tests
4. Job Interviewing Phase and Interviewing Skills
5. The Usefulness and Limitations of Reference Check
6. Using Physical Examination for Employment Purposes
7. Planning for Induction and Orientation
8. Evaluating a Selection Program
Thus, selection process is not a one-shot approach in selecting the suitable candidates for jobs. Selection is represented as a series of steps through which job applicants must pass through in order to be hired. Each step is important because at each step, information may be revealed and the decision may lead to disqualification or rejection of the candidate.
A candidate has to pass through these barriers before being placed on the job. In each of these steps, job descriptions are matched against job specifications. When the candidates pass through each step, the total number of perspective employees get reduced, until, finally one individual is hired.
Whatever steps an organization utilizes in the selection process, the primary purpose should be the collaboration and verification of information about the candidate. In setting up the selection process, decisions must be made as to how many of these steps must be used, in what order and how detailed and comprehensive these steps should be in getting pertinent information.
The Klein Institute of Aptitude Testing in the United States suggests a similar procedure.
Their suggested procedure includes the following steps:
i. A realistic analysis of the requirements of the job
ii. A sound application blank—fact finder who helps interviewers to learn about the individual’s background and life history
iii. A well-conducted interview—explores the facts and get to know the attitudes of the individual, and his/her family, towards the job and the company
iv. A reference check—how do previous employers’ feel about the individual? Would they re-hire him?
v. A physical examination—health and stamina are vital factors in success at work
vi. A psychological aptitude testing—explores the sub-surface area to get an objective look at the individual’s suitability for the job.
Whatever steps an organization utilizes in the selection procedure, the primary purpose should be the collection and verification of information about the candidate. In setting up the selection procedure, decision must be made as to how many of these steps must be used, in what order, and how detailed and comprehensive these steps should be in getting the pertinent information.
Selection is choosing to hire individuals from all those who have been recruited. In the selection process, there is a fit between the job and applicant characteristics. The sources of human resources constitute the labor market. These are the people who are able and willing to work. Some countries add another dimension to this definition by specifying the minimum age limit.
In India, for instance, it is illegal to employ someone below sixteen years of age. The employers who break this law are liable to pay a fine and in some cases may have to serve a jail term also. The unemployed students graduating from educational and vocational training institutions, veterans, and people already
Still, if there is any gap, preliminary training may help to close the gap and the trainee will be placed on the job. In some cases, probationary period may be involved. At any one of these steps, the candidate may be rejected. For a candidate, it is like crossing hurdles before he or she gets the job.
Those who respond to the job advertisements think that as soon as they mail their resume or application, they have the job. Once they know that the above steps are involved, they got to prepare themselves with necessary information to go through the steps in the selection process. The most important thing is that they should present honest, true, and reliable information.
Employee Selection Process # 1. The Preliminary Screening
If response to a company’s recruiting efforts is good, there may be many applicants from which to choose. To make one’s job of selection less time-consuming and more effective, you should do some preliminary screening to eliminate those applicants who are obviously not qualified for the job and yet make them feel they have been treated fairly. Some companies have the practice of sending encouraging letters to the rejected candidates saying,
“We had an overwhelming response to our advertisement for the Sales Manager’s job and had to consider only a limited number of applicants. It is very nice of you to take time to respond to our advertisement. If any opening arises in the future which fits your background, we will keep you informed.
Meanwhile, we wish you good luck in your efforts towards finding suitable employment. Thank you once again for responding to our job advertisement.” Such a reply will make the rejected candidate feel good and develop a good impression about the company. This can also serve as a good public relations effort.
The main purpose of preliminary screening is to check whether the applicant has the critical specifications for the job in consideration. Preliminary screening also saves the applicant’s time. It gives him an opportunity to see that the organization and job opening meet his or her expectations in terms of salary, work conditions, location, and advancement.
In conducting preliminary interview or screening, merely looking at the applicant can reveal some important aspects of the candidate. This approach is known as visual screening. Another technique to be used in preliminary screening is to ask “knock out” or critical questions. These questions should be related directly to the requirements of successful job performance.
i. For Sales Manager’s Job’-Are you available for travel up to fifty percent of your time?
ii. Human Resource Specialist in OD Techniques- How extensive is your background in OD techniques?
iii. Laboratory Assistant- Are you allergic to fumes?
Such questions must be prepared for various jobs in a company. If you determine that an individual is not qualified, you should terminate the conversation at that point. Let the applicant know why, in terms of qualifications, he cannot be considered for the job.
You may find it helpful to keep a brief log of all the applicants you prescreen. Note their names, addresses, mobile numbers, and the reason a further interview was not scheduled. Even though an individual may not be qualified for a particular job, he may be qualified for future job openings.
If the person conducting preliminary screening finds that the requirements of the job and the qualifications of the candidate match, he or she is given an application form. This stage of the selection process is important for large organizations since they receive a heavy stream of applicants whenever they place an advertisement or visit college campuses. The screening process as a filtering mechanism takes some pressure off from other selection steps and procedures.
Employee Selection Process # 2. The Role of Application Blanks or Forms
One of the key tools in the selection process is the employment application. When completed, the application provides a clear summary of the applicant’s entire life-history. The information also serves as the foundation upon which the employment interview is built.
Every organization designs and uses its own’ application blank or form. A well-designed form serves a number of purposes. It is useful in testing the candidate’s ability to spell, write legibly and answer questions accurately. Providing accurate information indicates one’s sense of responsibility and honesty.
It is also popular belief that one’s handwriting is a reflection of his or her character. The application also provides basic information for interview purposes. The basic source of information enables the interviewer to concentrate on obtaining deeper explanations that help to bring out character, motivation, initiative, and the like.
Another purpose of application is that several interpretations regarding job success can be made from the information provided by the candidate. The information provided in the application serves as indicators of energy, oral skills, aggressiveness and self-centeredness. For example, an applicant’s likes and dislikes of certain school subjects and job experiences may indicate his or her energy or potential for future jobs.
In some cases, the background information is very essential in predicting job success. Studies on the predictive ability of background information show that early family responsibility, financial responsibility, and stability were useful predictors of the success of sales executives. The basic source of information enables the interviewer to concentrate on obtaining deeper explanations that help to bring out character, motivation, initiative, and the like.
There are two methods of evaluating an application. They are the clinical method, and the weighted method. The clinical method requires the help of a psychologist or the person who has some knowledge in the field of psychology. Under this method, the application information is analyzed in detail, drawing all possible inferences, making predictions on the applicant’s personality and predicting future job success.
The second method is the weighted or statistical method. In this method, certain points or weights are assigned to the answers given by the applicant in the application. The basic requirement is that responses to the various items in the application form be related to some criterion of job success. Therefore, it is necessary to identify those items of personal history of present employees that differentiate between the groups of successful and unsuccessful employees. Studies have been done using job tenure, success ratings, salary increases, and a variety of indexes.
It was found that an insurance company’s successful life insurance sales executives tend to be married, having high living expense, and belonged to a large number of clubs and organizations, whereas the unsuccessful ones were single, had low living expenses, and belonged to few organizations. These factors can be given a definite statistical scoring when evaluating a person’s application.
For most purposes the horizontal percent method is adequate. Under this method, an employee sample is divided into a high and low group on some criterion index. Let us say that all those married seemed to be better performers because of their sense of responsibility. Applications filled out previously, at the time of employment, are then checked to determine how many in the low and high groups selected each alternative on a given item.
The percent of those responding in a particular way that also fall in the high group on the criterion is then computed. The percentage is then converted to a weight by rounding to a single number. High values are associated with the desired performance, low values with that which is not desired. A total score is obtained by adding up the weights on the individual items.
At times, the interviewers keep the application form in front of them while interviewing the candidates to see whether the information matches with the interview responses. If there is any discrepancy more questions are raised either to seek clarification or confirm the responses with the stated in the application form—a good way of checking the honesty of the applicant. In a survey of 150 large organizations, fifty seven of them had ten or more irrelevant questions in their application forms. Such things call for re-examination and redesign of application forms according to changing needs.
Whatever, the format, the style and the design of application form, the content of the form includes questions pertaining to:
i. Personal background
ii. Educational qualifications
iii. Employment record
iv. Extracurricular activities
v. Physical record
Under each category, there will be a number of sub-items. The candidate will be asked to respond to the items and sub-items in chronological order. The applicant must provide the answers in handwritten form, legibly written. In some forms, space will be provided for an interviewer’s comments or notes. Thus, the interviewers will be compelled to use these forms during the interviews. If the applicant doesn’t provide the responses in a legible manner, it will be only to his or her disadvantage.
Employee Selection Process # 3. The Meaning, Types and Uses of Psychological Tests
The next step in the selection process is administering psychological and other forms of testing methods. Almost all major companies, at one time or another, had used some kind of tests in their selection process. Perhaps it was as simple as having a candidate for the typist job, typing a letter, or a truck driver demonstrating his driving skill by operating a vehicle or it might have been a complex battery of tests to choose the most capable candidates for a position in the organization.
More emphasis in the selection process is given to psychological tests, which are divided into aptitude, achievement, vocational interest and personality tests. The psychological tests are generally given importance while other forms of tests are treated as regular or skill tests. The psychological tests are designed to secure in-depth information about an individual.
The following areas are generally included in this area:
These tests are designed to secure information about an applicant’s abilities, aptitudes, interests, creativity, and personality. The reason for using psychological tests is based on an assumption that individuals differ in their characteristics and that these differences can be accurately measured. Such a measurement would also reveal the person who is going to be successful in future job performance. Therefore, it can predict a person’s job performance on the basis of his or her test scores.
A successful job performance requires certain mental and physical abilities, interests and creativity. There are a number of tests available to determine whether a candidate possesses these qualities. While each is different in content and purpose, there are essentially five types of tests generally used in the selection process of executives and non-executives.
A test is based on the fact that different types of jobs require different personality characteristics and behaviors. These are – performance tests, aptitude or interest tests, intelligence or mental ability tests, personality evaluation and special tests. The special tests include polygraph or lie-detector test and graphology (analysis of handwriting). Nearly twenty percent of the 400 major corporations surveyed use polygraph tests.
Such tests are used where financial responsibilities and temptations to steal are involved:
i. Performance Tests
ii. Aptitude Tests
iii. Interest Tests
iv. Intelligence (or) Mental Ability Tests
v. Personality Tests
vi. Special Tests
Professional guidance is needed in selecting, administering and interpreting psychological tests. Tests may be chosen on the basis of their names rather than what they actually measure. These may represent the range level or range of difficulty. Human resource managers sometimes seize upon inefficient tests whereas more valid information could be obtained by other means in the same length of time.
To have a fuller understanding of the practical application of these tests, one must be familiar with certain testing concepts, such as validity and reliability. Care must be exercised in using the tests. Employment tests on personality tests that are invalid and unreliable may lead to legal battles.
Validity is the accuracy with which a test measures what it is supposed to measure. For example, a typing skill test should measure accurately the applicant’s ability to type.
In other words, validation refers to a test’s ability to predict relevant criteria such as performance on the job, quantity and quality of production and turnover rate.
Validation process involves:
i. Conducting in-depth, systematic analysis of the positions in the company which require a thorough knowledge of the jobs, skills, and behavior needed to perform the jobs well.
ii. Developing criterion measures from the position analysis.
iii. Selecting tests which appear to accurately reflect the performance components.
iv. Administering tests to a sample of current employees to check whether the test results accurately differentiate between successful and less successful employees now on the job.
v. Testing all the new employees and placing them on available jobs that require the abilities which the test results indicate they possess.
vi. Follow-up to see the test scores match against the job performance
Many companies are unable to conduct validation studies of their employment tests because the number of employees is too small or appropriate job components cannot be developed. If such is the case, the company may request the commercial firm, which supplies the tests to provide information on validation. Larger companies in the same industry may be approached for validation results on their own studies.
It is the consistency with which the tests measure whatever they are supposed to measure. In other words, if a person took the test in the month of July and again a month later, his or her scores should be approximately the same. If there is any discrepancy in the scores, it should be due to differences in the situation or the person and not due to any defect in the test itself.
Reliability is established in many ways:
1. The Test-Retest Method:
Under this method, tests are administered twice to the same group of individuals and scores are correlated. The individual who earned the highest score in the first test should earn the highest score in the retest. One major criticism against this method is that new learning may occur during the interval between the two tests or the applicants may remember items and consult with others for correct answers before the retest.
2. The Equivalent Forms Method:
In this method, instead of administering the original test itself for the second time, an equivalent form of the original test is administered, so that learning and memory factors are avoided. Of course, this method is more expensive as it involves the development of two different test forms.
3. The Split-Half Method:
Under this method, the total test is divided into halves in such a way that the items in each half constitute a miniature representation of the entire tests. The halves are scored separately, and the reliability is achieved by correlating the scores earned by individuals on the halves of the test.
Guidelines for Selecting Tests:
i. The human resource manager should not solely rely on tests as the selection device. They should be used only as supplement to other selection techniques.
ii. One should remember that tests predict failure more accurately than success.
iii. Tests are more helpful in selecting a group of people who are most likely to succeed on the job rather than a particular individual.
iv. Tests must prove their validity and reliability.
v. Tests must be objective in the sense that all judges would assign the same total score. (multiple choice items)
vi. Standardized tests are preferred in that the items, procedures and scoring methods are the same for all subjects of where or when the tests are administered.
vii. Short tests are preferable to long ones.
viii. Group administered tests are economical.
ix. Tests that do not require highly trained persons for administering and scoring are preferred rather than which require psychologists.
Some organizations, instead of using any specific psychological tests, have developed their own checklists. The areas considered for this purpose include: education, intelligence, experience, organizational skills, communication skills, energy level, interpersonal skills, manner and attitude, interpersonal assertiveness, initiative, drive, resourcefulness, maturity, motivation, ambition, stability, perseverance, industry, ability to get along with others, confidence, self-reliance, and leadership.
Employee Selection Process # 4. Job Interviewing Phase and Interviewing Skills
The interview phase is usually followed by testing. The interview is probably the most essential step in the sequential selection system. At this stage, the interviewer matches the information obtained about the candidate through various sources, such as, application forms, screening, and testing.
By now, quite a bit of information is gathered about the potential candidates. The interviewer relates this information with the information obtained through his or her own observation during the interview. Clarification and elaboration of brief responses given in the application form are also sought in the interview process. A considerable portion of the interview may be devoted to giving the applicant information about the job and the company. To get a true picture of the applicant, the interviewer should be sincere, warm, and friendly and accept the person for what he or she is.
Interviewing, like listening, is an acquired skill. It is the ability to ask the right question in the right words at the right time and to understand the response. Studies of interview suggest that people tend to make quick judgments of others within the first few seconds and rarely change their opinions during the course of the interview, but it will not be from rejection to acceptance. The only way to improve the skill is through experience.
The following suggestions may be helpful for improving interview skills:
i. Careful planning prior to the actual interview
ii. Thorough knowledge of the job
iii. Adequate time for the interview, not rushing through
iv. Proper setting to encourage the applicant to talk
v. Ability to put the applicant at ease
vi. Conversing on the applicants level
vii. Gathering adequate information on the applicant s background
viii. Knowledge of when and how to close the interview
ix. Awareness of interviewers own prejudices
x. Immediately recording the highlights with recommendations
Unfortunately, the tendency of most interviewers is to look for someone exactly like the last person (if he or she was a good one) or exactly the opposite (if he or she was a poor one) rather than using the job opening as an opportunity to revitalize the department. Rather than hiring someone because of his or her looks, his or her personality or apparent good work history, the interviewer should be asking himself, “Is this individual most likely to do a good job for us?”
Interviewers differ in their interviewing methods and approaches. Some of them take a formal approach while others take an informal conversational approach. There are, however, some ground rules that are commonly accepted by many interviewers.
These are discussed below:
1. Preparing for the Interview:
Every interviewer knows that conducting an interview requires adequate preparation. This preparation stage includes a review of the applicant’s background as revealed in the application form, test scores, if any, references
If the interviewer had already considerable information about the candidate, he or she must plan for gathering additional information and verifying the already gathered information. When non-directive methods of interviewing are used, the interviewer must do some mental planning regarding the types of questions and answers anticipated. Such preplanning would enable the interviewer to devote most of the attention to listening and observing.
Besides being mentally prepared, the interviewer must also prepare the physical setting for the interview. Success of the interview partially depends on a suitable physical setting. Any interruption or disturbance causes a break in the continuity of the conversation and hence, a break in gathering information.
2. Establishing Rapport:
The interviewer must try to establish a friendly relationship with the candidate. He or she should show sincere interest in the candidate. The interviewer should never show any sign of impatience; rather he or she should show that there is plenty of time given to the candidate to talk. An informal opening will put the candidate at ease. The candidate is almost always under tension and if the interviewer puts him in a relaxed atmosphere, the candidate will be able to express himself freely. Otherwise, the candidate may pass only the information, which he thinks will be favored by the interviewer.
3. Gathering Information:
This stage is an important part of the interview. After rapport has been established, the conversation should be changed to areas of information useful for the purpose of interview. If the interviewer uses a directive or structured type of interview, he can start asking the questions he has already prepared. If it is a non-directive type of interview, the interviewer must closely follow the responses of the candidate in order to maintain the continuity of the conversation. He must also be careful to phrase his or her questions.
Whatever approach is involved, attentive listening is essential. Listening helps to get more information and to correct any misunderstanding or confusion. A good interviewer is one who is trained in projective listening (listening for meanings) skill. Some interviewers are so preoccupied in taking notes during the interview that they miss certain important responses of the candidate.
Allowing a reasonable amount of occasional pauses is a good technique. It helps to achieve the desired permissive atmosphere and it gives an opportunity to the candidate to relax and to think. Sometimes, the interviewer repeats a portion of the candidate’s responses. Such a technique helps keep the procedure from becoming monotonous and makes the conversation easy and lively.
But this re-statement technique must be used sparingly, to be effective. The interviewer must make sure that the candidate understands his language and also must make sure that he understands the candidate s language. To clear the semantic problem, the interviewer should not hesitate to ask or provide clarification. Whether it is a directive or non-directive interview, all pertinent information must be recorded properly and promptly.
Some interviewers rely on their memory and try to complete their questionnaires or take notes when the interviewee leaves the room. This approach may minimize the objectivity of the interview process. But the interviewer should remember that note taking should not interfere with his observation, listening or conversation.
4. Giving Information:
Once the interviewer feels that he had gathered all the pertinent information, he should stop asking questions and provide the candidate with information regarding the prospects about the job, facts about the company, salary and fringe benefits and other relevant information.
According to some experts, there are some duties of the interviewer in giving information to the candidate. These are:
i. The interviewer must answer fully and frankly the applicants questions about the company, the job, and the working conditions.
ii. The interviewer must convince the person that he is interviewing a good company to work for since it provides good opportunities for growth and advancement (if it is true).
iii. The interviewer must steer the applicant toward a job for which he is better suited.
iv. Finally, the interviewer should leave the prospect, in any case, with the feeling that he had made a personal friend.
5. Closing the Interview:
When the interview had achieved its purpose, the interviewer must bring it to a close promptly. He should thank the candidate and bid him goodbye. The interviewer should not be influenced by his feeling and promise more than he can. The candidate should be told that he would be contacted when the decisions are finalized. Some interviewers take a straightforward approach and inform the candidate that he will be contacted at a later date or that the company will not be able to use him.
If the interviewer is impressed by the candidate, and then he should be told that he is to visit the plant or office for another interview and give him further information. After the candidate leaves, the interviewer should complete his report and comments about the candidate. The sooner this is done, the more facts and comments will be remembered and recorded.
6. Review and Evaluation:
This is the stage of putting all the information together into an overall evaluation. The facts, observations, and analysis must be completely integrated for evaluation purposes. By the end of the interview the person who had conducted the interview should be able to comment extensively and pertinently on the applicant’s ability to adjust to the environment, people at work, to do the work, interest in doing the work, potential growth, likelihood of remaining in the company and so on. The interviewer must make sure that he has a clear picture of the individual.
Interviewers often fall victims to various types of errors while they interview applicants. They commit these errors consciously or unconsciously. An organization may have very objective application forms, screening procedures, and testing methods but if it fails to train its interviewers in conducting objective interviews, then the entire selection program will not serve any purpose. Due to various errors committed by interviewers, the company may be losing the best candidates or hiring poor caliber personnel.
The errors committed by the interviewers arising from various sources are discussed below:
i. Halo Effect:
This is the tendency to evaluate an individual favorably or unfavorably on the basis of one strength or weakness or trait. This is the most common and critical error in assessment. Some interviewers are known to reject a candidate simply because he or she failed to knock on the door before entering into the interview room or hiring the individual just for his appearance.
Another common error in interviewing is the tendency of the interviewer to oversimplify the responses of the applicant. Oversimplification involves the reduction of complex human traits into one-to-one relationship and the reduction of complex data into oversimplified terms. Many interviewers try to find simple explanations instead of analyzing the situation in detail.
The interviewer commits this error when he tends to use his own values and attitudes as criteria in evaluating the applicant. For example, if the applicant takes the side of the interviewer on a particular issue, then he is viewed favorably.
There are certain popular beliefs which have been in existence traditionally. Some interviewers believe in these and use them as criteria in selecting the applicants. A common misconception is that a high forehead is a sign of intelligence.
This error is committed when the interviewer makes his decision or reaches some kind of conclusion before seeing the candidate. This happens when the interviewer gets his impression after going through the information provided by the applicant in his application or resume.
vi. Personal Bias:
Every human being has certain biases, prejudices or preconceptions about other people. These may be against such physical characteristics as overweight, big ears, red hair, some kind of physical infirmity or some mannerisms. Sometimes these biases may influence the interviewer’s decision in selecting a candidate.
Employee Selection Process # 5. The Usefulness and Limitations of Reference Check
Once the interview is over, the human resource specialist will engage in checking references. These references may be from the individuals who are familiar with the candidates’ achievements and experience. Checking the references gives an indication of the person’s future success on the job by showing his past performance. This step is an indispensable part of effective human resource selection. The human resource specialist often gains highly valuable and useful information related to the applicant’s past work experience.
A number of methods have been used over the years to check employment references. Predominantly they fall into three categories- Checking references in person, by mail, and by phone.
Probably the best single way of checking an applicant’s reference is to pay a personal visit to his or her former employer.
The most popular method of checking an applicant’s employment references is by sending a letter to his former employer. Of course, there is time delay by using this approach. By the time the answer comes, one to two weeks may easily have elapsed.
Using the telephone or mobile phone to check references is another useful strategy to employ.
In some cases, the reference check may follow the structured selection process. For example, if you are considering a person for a higher level position and have a good deal of confidence that there has been an effective job of prescreening you may prefer to conduct the reference check after interviewing the candidate. This strategy may be particularly appropriate if you plan to conduct a second in-depth interview with the applicant, before a final decision is made.
On the other hand, the advantage of conducting the phone reference check before the interview may be desirous, particularly when there has been no prescreening. A review of the candidates application form may raise a specific question regarding his or her basic qualifications, suggesting that a full structural selection interview is warranted.
The human resource specialist should be particularly sensitive to how the respondent talks about his former employee. Does he speak positively, enthusiastically, or even glowingly of the applicant or is he brief, and relatively guarded in his comments?
Employee Selection Process # 6. Using Physical Examination for Employment Purposes
A candidate might have everything going in his or her favor so far in the selection process. But if his physical qualifications fail to meet job requirements, then he will not be able to get the job. The physical examinations enable the employer to determine whether the employee is physically able and fit to perform the job. Placing the candidate with some disability on the job may lead to liability for the company for unfounded and unreasonable compensation claims when the employee gets into a small accident.
The research studies carried out in this area; identify the following requirements of a normal physical examination:
i. The applicant’s medical history is obtained. Methods vary
ii. Physical measurements such as height, weight, chest, .
iii. General examination, including skin, musculature and joints
iv. Examination of special senses (visual, auditory)
v. Clinical examination of chest and lungs
vi. Check of blood pressure, and heart (ECG)
vii. Laboratory tests (blood, urine, etc.)
viii. X-ray examination of chest
ix. Special tests, if indicated
x. Neuro-psychiatric examination
These tests may vary from company to company, and industry to industry. Small companies cannot afford to spend money on an exhaustive testing program. The cost of these tests is not covered by insurance programs. They have to be borne by the applicant. Certain allergy tests are important to certain chemical and metal industries. Some jobs require employees to wear space suits and the candidates must be informed of these requirements during the selection process.
Employee Selection Process # 7. Planning for Induction and Orientation
The candidates who cross all the hurdles, report to work on a specified date. Induction completes the entire selection process. Many organizations experience a certain amount of turnover at this time due to the neglect of this stage. The new employee finds it difficult to adjust to his or her new job and surroundings, including fellow-employees. To avoid such problems, new employees must be acquainted with their fellow-employees, immediate supervisor, rules and regulations of the company, facilities, and privileges.
The new employee must be given an opportunity to clear his or her doubts. Some companies use effective techniques and methods in inducting a new employee on the job. Such methods include classroom lectures, movies, slide presentation, and a conference with immediate supervisors and fellow-employees.
Whatever, method is used the new employee must be provided with the following information:
a. General Background of the Company:
i. How the company came into existence and its history
ii. Type of products, services and operation
iii. Size, branches, and their location
iv. Policies, goals, rules, and regulations
b. Job-Related Information:
i. Duties and responsibilities
ii. Wages, salary, benefits, promotion, transfer, vacation, pension
iii. Hours of work and working conditions and
iv. Suggestion system
Some companies provide this valuable information in a book-let form to every employee in the company during induction and orientation and in fact, go through the items with proper explanation followed by a question and answer session. Such sessions will help employees to make a smooth transition to their workplace and jobs.
Employee Selection Process # 8. Evaluating a Selection Program
Any organization which hires employees should consider looking at the selection procedures to determine their effectiveness. Technological and other environmental changes make some of the selection procedures obsolete. Human resource managers must recognize these factors and constantly update the selection tools. Smooth functioning of these tools does not necessarily mean that these tools are effective. These tools can be made more effective by evaluating their contributions regularly.
Research studies, the practices of other companies in the industry and company records are some of the sources, which the human resource people can rely upon in evaluating and updating the selection program.
An effective evaluation of the selection program must include the following:
i. Examination of sources of manpower to determine the effectiveness of sources and to search for new sources
ii. Analytical evaluation of the application blank to determine its usefulness and redesigning it to fit changing needs
iii. Another area to look into is psychological testing. The relevance of these tests must be evaluated
iv. Interview techniques used must also be evaluated.
In general, an evaluation should involve comparison of what the selection tools predicted, with the actual performance of the employees on the job. Such a comparison would substantiate the predictive value of these tools. Furthermore, absenteeism or tardiness among the new employees may indicate a poor selection program. A comprehensive staffing program includes training and development. The responsibility of a manager is not over when he completes the functions of recruiting and selecting human resources.