Everything you need to know about executive development.

Executive development – or simply development because it refers to learning opportunities thrown open to managers working at various levels – is any attempt to improve managerial performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes or increasing skills.

The aim of development is not just to improve current job performance of managers but to prepare them for future challenging roles.

Executive development or management development is a systematic and continuous process through which the executives learn advanced knowledge and skills in managing.


Executive Development Programme (EDP) is a planned and organised process of learning and growth designed to improve managerial behaviour and performance of executives by cultivating their mental abilities and inherent qualities through the acquisition and application of advanced knowledge insights and skills.

In the words of Michael Armstrong, “Executive development is eventually something that the executive has to attain himself. But he will do this much better if he is given encouragement, guidance and opportunity by his company”.

Learn about:-

1. Introduction to Executive Development 2. Meaning and Definition of Executive Development 3. Concept 4. Objectives 5. Need 6. Levels 7. Principles


8. Importance 9. Process 10. Factors Influencing 11. Methods 12. Obstacles  13. Perquisites for Success 14. Evaluation.

Executive Development: Meaning, Definition, Concept, Need, Importance, Factors, Methods, Obstacles and Evaluation


  1. Introduction to Executive Development
  2. Meaning and Definition of Executive Development
  3. Concept of Executive Development
  4. Objectives of Executive Development
  5. Need for Executive Development
  6. Levels of Executive Development
  7. Principles of Executive Development
  8. Importance of Executive Development
  9. Process of Executive Development
  10. Factors Influencing Executive Development Processes in Organizations
  11. Methods of Executive Development
  12. Obstacles that Hamper Executive Development
  13. Requisites for Success of Executive Development
  14. Evaluation of Executive Development

Executive Development – Introduction

Executive development – or simply development because it refers to learning opportunities thrown open to managers working at various levels – is any attempt to improve managerial performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes or increasing skills. The aim of development is not just to improve current job performance of managers but to prepare them for future challenging roles.

This would involve upgrading their knowledge, looking at things from a refreshing fresh angle or simply increasing their skill sets so that they can slip into complex and more demanding roles effortlessly. Development aims at building the competencies of people, of preparing them for planned career growth and is always future-focused.


Development is different from training because it focuses on less tangible aspects of performance, such as attitudes and values. It is a long-term educational exercise that helps managers to acquire conceptual and theoretical knowledge in a systematic manner.

The reasons for undertaking executive development in organizations may be summarized as follows:

i. Change and competition are continuous features which require continuous adaptation by the organizations. For this, continuous upgradation of skills and competencies at all levels, specifically at the management levels, is necessary.

ii. There is a need to hone the leadership skills of managers. Today’s organizations need leaders, not managers. The executive development programme (EDF) aims to address this particular need.

iii. Continuous learning and knowledge development inform and mould managers, which also helps them gain the respect of their subordinates. Motivating the management towards learning executive development is a systematized approach.

iv. Information technology (IT) has become an all pervasive phenomenon and a majority of the present-day organiza­tional processes are seamlessly integrated with IT. The decision making process has also been made easy with the help of IT support. It is thus necessary for the managers to become IT savvy to use IT for enhancing the performance of their departments.

v. People management skills, along with technical skills, play a crucial role in the growth and evolution of managers. The EDF addresses the need for developing the human competencies of managers.

Executive development is highly beneficial to both the organisation and the individuals. Employees and managers with relevant experiences and capabilities enhance the ability of an organisation to compete and adapt to a changing competitive environment. In the development process, the individuals’ careers also gain focus and evolve. The success of development effort, to be marked as effective depends upon the following inputs-

Trainee’s personal characteristics, such as his intelligence and motivation to learn; his actual learning efforts. Development can turn out to be a fruitful venture, if the individual firmly believes in the exercise and seeks to undertake the explorative journey in a sincere way. All development is actually self-development. The motivation to change for the better should come from within. External factors could only facilitate the transformation process.

Executive Development – What is Executive Development: Meaning and Definition Propounded by Terry, Koontz and O’Donnell, Beach, Armstrong & Flippo

Executive development is considered as a systematic process of learning and growth through which executives gain and apply the knowledge, skills, and attitude to their jobs in the organisations efficiently and effectively. Executive development relates experience with learning. The main purpose of executive development is that managers should learn from their experiences.


With the help of executive development the executives learn to improve their behaviour and performance. This process of learning is targeted towards the implication that there will be changed behaviour on the part of individual who are provided with adequate training and education.

Executive development or management development is a systematic and continuous process through which the executives learn advanced knowledge and skills in managing. Executive Development Programme (EDP) is a planned and organised process of learning and growth designed to improve managerial behaviour and performance of executives by cultivating their mental abilities and inherent qualities through the acquisition and application of advanced knowledge insights and skills. This definition points out two important elements of executive development.

First, executive development will involve an improvement in the behaviour of the persons in the management, given the necessary training and education.


Secondly, Executive development is a continuous process. It never stops. The executives keep on learning through job experiences and by participating in the training programme.

In the words of George R. Terry, “Executive development should produce change in behaviour which is more in keeping with the organisation’s goals than the previous behaviour. Such a change frequently consists of a number of small steps resulting from the training, but the cumulative effect is considerable as the end result is sought. It is also basic that a terminal behaviour is identified before the development efforts start”.

According to Koontz and O’Donnell, “Executive development concerns the means by which a person cultivates those skills whose application will improve the efficiency and effectiveness with which the anticipated results of a particular organisational segment are achieved”.

According to Dale S. Beach, “The role of the company in management development is to establish the programme and the development opportunities for its present and potential managers”.


In the words of Michael Armstrong, “Executive development is eventually something that the executive has to attain himself. But he will do this much better if he is given encouragement, guidance and opportunity by his company”.

Flippo, “Executive Development includes the process by which managers and executives acquire not only skills and competency in their present jobs but also capabilities for further managerial tasks of increasing difficulty and scope”.

Beach, “Executive development is a systematic process of training and growth by which individuals gain and apply knowledge, skill, insights and attitudes to manage work organizations effectively”.

Bateman and Snell, “Executive development is teaching managers and professional employees broad skills needed for their present and future jobs”.

Thus, from the above definitions, it is clear that the executive development is a systematic and planned process of growth and development by which managers develop their abilities to manage. Executive development is the result of not only participation in formal courses of instruction but also the result of the actual job experience.

It aims at improving the performance of the managers by providing to them opportunities for growth and development. Mere classroom lectures of and class-study do not guarantee that the managers will develop but what is more important is the efforts of the managers themselves.


Every manager should make his own contribution to his own development because others can create or provide only opportunities. The responsibility of the company is only to create or provide opportunities whereas the responsibility of the manager is to take full advantage of such opportunities to develop themselves.

Executive Development – Concept

Executive or management development focuses on manager’s personal growth. It basically aims at improving judgment, logical thinking of managers to take complex decisions and to take responsibility. Executive development is a planned, system­atic and continuous process of learning and growth by which managers develop their conceptual and analytical abilities to manage.

It is combination of both experience and skills. The participants should also have capacity and self-motivation to learn and develop themselves.

Executive development is thus:

1. A planned effort to improve executive’s ability to handle high-level responsibilities.

2. It is continuous, ongoing activity as it aims improving total personality, behaviour, attitude of managers which cannot be done overnight.


3. It is a long-term process, as managers take time to acquire and improve their capabilities.

4. It is proactive in nature as it focuses attention on the present as well as future requirements of both the organisation and the individuals.

1. Continuous Process – Executive development is a continuous process because there is no fixed time limit for learning. It is not a one shot activity and continues throughout the career of the mangers.

2. Long Process – Executive development is a long process and takes time. It is time consuming because the skills of the managers cannot be developed overnight.

3. Planned Activity – Executive development is a well-planned, organized, and systematic activity. It is not a trial and error approach.

4. Involves Stresses and Strains – Development does not takes place in the total peaceful and relaxed atmosphere. It involves stresses and strains.


5. Conducive Environment – Executive development needs conducive environment which should be encouraging and stimulating. Further, it also require that adequate feedback should be received about the degree of development of the personnel.

6. Guided Self Development – Executive development can only be made possible only when the manager himself wants to learn. The individual must have the desire to learn and practice what he is taught. Coercion can never lead to the development of executives or the managers.

Executive Development – What are the Objectives of Executive Development: Knowledge to New Entrants, Improving Performance, Preventing Obsolescence and a Few Others

Following are the primary or important objectives of Executive Development:

1. Knowledge to New Entrants – The objective of executive development is to impart basic knowledge and information to the new entrants in the organisation for the purpose increasing their overall knowledge and improving their conceptual and decision making skills.

2. Improving Performance – Executive development aims for the improvement of the performance of the managers at all levels in their present jobs by introducing them with the latest concepts, information, and techniques.

3. Preparing Managers for Future Positions – Executive development has the main purpose to build the second line of the competent officers and prepare them for their future responsible positions as part of their career progression.


4. Preventing Obsolescence – The aim of executive development is to prevent obsolescence of executives by making them aware of the latest techniques and concepts in their area of specialization.

5. Developing Latest Management Techniques – Executive development has its purpose to develop and implement the latest management techniques in place of the traditional systems for increasing the productivity of the managers and the organisation as the whole.

6. Opportunities to Executives – The objective executive development is to provide the new and better opportunities to the executives so that they can fulfil their career aspirations.

7. Optimum Utilization of Managerial Resources – The aim of executive development is to optimally utilize the managerial resources in the organisation.

8. Introducing Changes – Executive development aims for the introduction of the required changes by developing executives and broadening their perspectives so that they can work as the change agents.

Executive Development – Need

There is growing need for the development of an efficient managerial pool to meet the challenges of industry. Realising this, many management institutes and training organisations have geared up their training and development activities to a great extent. However, there is a certain imbalance in the spread of management education. A concentration of management training is found in the industrial sector mostly in traditional industries and public sector enterprises.


1. Techno-managers in such sectors as engineering and steel, coal, fertilizer, oil and cement industries. Personnel in these industries need training not only in the functional areas of management but also need to acquire a thorough knowledge of the sector.

2. Management resource mobilisation towards professionalising such public utilities as water supply, power distribution, transport and communications, for agriculture and industry are dependent on the efficient functioning of these utilities.

3. Government and civic offices organised to render public services, including municipal services, housing, insurance, mass media, police, medical services and education, have been untouched by the management movement. The “managerialisation” of these services needs immediate attention.

4. Management principles and techniques need to be introduced in other areas of national economy – managerial services for agriculture and rural development, irrigation, co-operation and animal husbandry, fisheries, forestry and marketing. Management know-how also needs to be brought to bear on production processes at the farm level with a view to increasing efficiency in the tertiary or service sector in rural areas.

5. Public administration is a vast sector which needs management attention, because this segment has a direct relevance to economic and social activity, for it brings functionaries into contact with the citizenry and the entrepreneurial class.

6. Management development programmes for all those who are engaged in positions above the supervisory level of operations – whether as Deans of hospitals, the Vice-Chancellors of Universities, Superintendents of Police or Collectors of districts. Their job calls for the use of a management component which is concerned with such skills as leadership and communication. For them, training in management, productivity and human relations would be very valuable.

Executive development programmes help managers to cope with rapid technological change, cut­throat competition, sudden changes in government policies, changes in the outlook and expectations of a vast majority of workers possessing transferable skills.

Managers can update their skills, knowledge and competencies from time to time in sync with these changing trends and tackle knotty issues with confidence. In short, no organisation can achieve success in the long run unless it tries to improve, expand and develop its talent pool through constant learning initiatives.

Executive Development – 3 Levels of Management: Top, Middle Management and Middle Functional Executive and Specialists

1. Top Management:

This consists of chief executives designated as chairman, managing director or as chief executive officer. This level is responsible for overall management of an organization within the policy frame work framed by the Board of Directors.

The following functions fall within their authority jurisdiction:

i. Formulation of long-term strategies.

ii. Issuing directions and instructions to various lower level functional areas.

iii. Coordinating the functions of different functional units.

iv. Appointing key personnel, performance appraisal, compensation decision and training and development of leaders.

v. Reviving and controlling organizational performances.

vi. Maintaining and being in constant touch with environmental elements.

vii. Continuously leading the organization for betterment and excellence.

2. Middle Management:

The various functional heads form the middle management. They act as interface between the top management and the operative management. This level faces pressure from three fronts namely, top management who impose targets and transmit downwards policies and strategies for implementation, operative management which give its views and suggestion and middle peers who depend on one another for smooth work performance at various domains.

Following are the responsibilities of the middle management:

1. Performance of domain functions.

2. Securing cooperation from their peers at various domains.

3. Integrating the various intra-domain functions.

4. Hiring human resources for its domain and training and developing the human resources employed in its domain.

5. Managing the respective domains in a way that it contributes its share to overall achievement of the organizational goal.

3. Middle Functional Executive and Specialists:

(i) To increase knowledge of business functions and operations in specified fields in marketing, production, finance, personnel;

(ii) To bring about an awareness of the broad aspects of management problems, and an acquaintance with, and appreciation of, interdepartmental relations;

(iii) To develop familiarity with the managerial uses of financial accounting, psychology, business law and business statistics;

(iv) To inculcate knowledge of human motivation and human relationships; and

(v) To develop responsible leadership.

Executive Development – 10 Main Principles or Guidelines Observed by the Management towards Executive Development

The following principles or guidelines should be observed by the management towards executive development:

1. It is the responsibility of the management to arrange for executive development, which should be kept in charge of a senior executive.

2. Every departmental manager should take the responsibility of developing his subordinate extinctive.

3. Executive development programme should aim at meeting the needs of the individual executive as well as the needs of the enterprise.

4. The pre-requisite of effective executive development is the se­lection of the right man for the executive position.

5. The management should formulate a definite strategy of ex­ecutive development specifying clearly the various objectives, coverage and type of development.

6. The management should prepare a realistic time schedule for the executive development programme keeping in view the present and future needs of the organisation.

7. The executive development programme should be made ap­plicable to each and every executive so as to avoid executive obsolescence and impart latest knowledge and skills to all the executives.

8. The management should create congenial and favourable cli­mate conducive to executive development.

9. The participation of executives in every development pro­gramme should be made mandatory.

10. The management should arrange for feedback to its trainee executives so as to enable them to take necessary steps to improve themselves.

Executive Development – Importance: Increase in Complexities and Size of the Organization, Shortage of Trained Personnel, Technological Changes and a Few Others

In modern organisations there is a great need of executive or management development programmes. The quality of managers greatly affects the achievement of goals of the organisation as the difference in the price policy, inventory policy, marketing and production policy is explained through the quality of management. Executive development thus helps in maintaining the efficient manpower through which organizational objectives can be achieved.

The importance for executive development is felt due to the following reasons:

1. Increase in Complexities and Size of the Organization – In the phase of increasing competition the size and complexities of the organisations is continuously increasing. Due to this reason the mangers need to be developed to handle the complicated problems of these organisations.

2. Shortage of Trained Personnel – It is very difficult to recruit and select the personnel according to the requirements. The need mostly arises to develop the personnel so that they could perform their assigned tasks effectively and efficiently, which is done through executive development.

3. Technological Changes – The technological changes are rapidly taking place in this competitive business environment. The modern business organisations are continuously introducing the new equipments, machines, and methods of production. So the mangers require the latest knowledge of these new techniques and technology which is provided through executive development.

4. Socio Cultural Changes – The rapid change also occurs in the socio cultural environment and for understanding the behaviour of the people in the proper perspective there is a great need to develop the managers.

5. Increased Competition – There is a tough competition in the market and the consumers have become conscious of their rights and they cannot be now easily misguided. The executive development is of great help in properly understanding and meeting the needs of the consumers.

6. Changes in Labour Management Relation – Executive development is needed due to the reason that there are frequent changes in the labour management relations and with the help of executive development the managers can ensure industrial peace in the organisation.

7. Social Responsibility of Management – Due to the changing business philosophy, the social responsibility is widely recognized by the business leaders. So the increased management tasks arising out of the fulfilling social responsibility have made the executive development necessary in the corporate world.

8. Increased Professionalism – Management of public utilities, state enterprises and civic bodies are being professionalized for the purpose of improving the operational efficiency. This professionalism is ensured through executive development.

9. Unending Process – Management development is used for imparting knowledge about the latest concepts and as learning is an unending process, this makes the executive- development as an unending process.

Executive Development – 6 Step Process: Analysing Development Needs, Appraisal of Present Management Needs, Inventory of Executive Manpower and a Few Others

The process of executive development consists of the following steps:

Step # 1. Analysing Development Needs:

In the first instance, once a decision is made to launch an executive development programme, a close and critical examination of the present and future developmental needs of the organisation is made. It becomes necessary to know how many and what type of managers are required to meet the present and future needs of the organisation.

This requires organisational planning. A critical examination of the organisation structure in the light of the future plans of the organisation reveals what the organisation needs in terms of departments, functions and executive positions.

After getting the information, it will be easy to prepare the descriptions and specifications for different executive positions, which in turn gives information relating to the type of education, experience, training, special knowledge, skills and personal traits for each position.

By comparing the existing talents including those to be developed from within with those which are required to meet the projected needs enables the management to make a policy decision as to whether it wants to fill these positions from within or from outside sources.

Step # 2. Appraisal of Present Management Needs:

For the purpose of making above mentioned comparison, a qualitative assessment the existing executives will be made to determine the type of executive talent available within the organisation and an estimate of their potential for development is also added to that. Then comparison is made between the available executive talent and the projected required talent.

Step # 3. Inventory of Executive Manpower:

An inventory is prepared to have complete information about each executive. For each executive, a separate card or file is maintained to record therein such data as name, age, length of service, education, experience, health, test results, training courses completed, psychological test results, performance appraisal results etc.

An analysis of such information will reveal the strengths and weaknesses of each executive in certain functions relative to the future needs of the organisation.

Step # 4. Planning Individual Development Programmes:

Guided by the results of the performance appraisal which reveal the strengths and weaknesses of each executive, the management is required to prepare planning of individual development programmes for each executive. According to Dale S. Beach, “Each one of us has a unique set of physical, intellectual, emotional characteristics. Therefore, a development plan should be tailor-made for each individual”.

“It would be possible to impart knowledge and skills and mould behaviour of human beings, but it would be difficult to change the basic personality and temperament of a person once he reaches adult-hood stage”.

Step # 5. Establishing Training and Development Programmes:

It is the responsibility of the personnel or human resource department to prepare comprehensive and well-conceived development programmes. It is also required to identify existing levels of skills, knowledge etc. of various executives and compare them with their respective job requirements.

It is also required to identify development needs and establish specific development programmes in the fields of leadership, decision-making, human relations etc. But it may not be in a position to organise development programmes for the executives at the top level as could be organised by reputed institutes of management.

In such circumstances, the management deputes certain executives to the development programmes organised by the reputed institutes of management.

Further, the personnel or human resource department should go on recommending specific executive development programmes based on the latest changes and development in the management education.

Step # 6. Evaluating Development Programmes:

Since executive development programmes involve huge expenditure in terms of money, time and efforts, the top management of the organisation is naturally interested to know to what extent the programme objectives have been fulfilled. Such programme evaluation will reveal the relevance of the development programmes and the changes that have been effected by such programmes.

If the objectives of the programme have been achieved, the programme is said to be successful. But it is difficult to measure the changes or effects against the pre-determined objectives.

While the effect of certain programmes can be noticed only in the long-run in a more general way, the effect of certain other programmes may be noticed in the short-run in a specific way. Grievance reduction, cost reduction, improved productivity, improved quality etc. can be used to evaluate the effects of development programmes.

Executive Development – Factors Influencing the Executive Development Processes in Organizations

A host of factors influence the executive development processes in organizations.

i. Failure to train the managers will lead to ineffective and inefficient managers who negatively affect the organization’s performance.

ii. In the absence of training and developmental avenues, the performing managers may get de-motivated and frustrated in leading the organizations. This would lead to severe losses for the organization in financial parameters, in terms of the cost of recruiting and training the new incumbent.

iii. The organizational performance may be affected by the loss of market shares, lower sales, reduced profitability, etc.

iv. The absence/shortage of trained and skilled managers makes it important for the organizations to have appropriate retention strategies. Training and development is being used by organizations as a part of their retention strategy.

v. The competitive pressures make it necessary for organizations to continuously roll out new products and services, and also maintain the quality of the existing ones. The training and development of managers would help them in developing the competencies in these areas.

vi. The competitive environment is making it imperative for the organizations to continuously restructure and re-engineer, and to embark upon these processes, it is essential for the organizations to train the managers for the new scenarios.

Executive Development and E-learning:

The IT environment has, in a way, created challenges and also opportunities for organizations. The challenges include the rapid pace of changes, and on the opportunities front, it has provided the following advantages-

i. Knowledge management has become easy for implementation. In the traditional environment, sharing of intellectual resources and knowledge was a herculean task. Organizations had to prepare, print, and mail the circulars across the organization for the dissemination of information, which frequently led to the obsoleteness of information by the time the employees, because of the time gap, received it.

Further, it was tough for the organiza­tions to come up with strategies to continuously collect, update, and dissem­inate the information.

ii. Knowledge management has provided various forums such as Intranets, on-line discussion forums, expert panels, etc.

iii. E-learning has made learning easy, irrespective of the time and distance factors, e-learning has led to the empowerment of employees, since the employers are now able to decide upon the pace and content of learning, depending on their requirements.

The above developments have affected the executive development process in a significant way and have helped in transforming the brick-and-mortar learning scenario to an e-learning scenario.

Executive Development – What are the Important Methods of Executive Development: On the Job Techniques and Off the Job Techniques

The methods of executive development are broadly classified into two broad categories:

1. On the Job Techniques.

2. Off the Job Techniques.

1. On the Job Techniques:

On the job development of the managerial personnel is the most common form which involves learning while performing the work. On the job techniques are most useful when the objective is to improve on the job behaviour of the executives. This type of training is inexpensive and also less time consuming. The trainee without artificial support can size up his subordinates and demonstrate his leadership qualities.

The following methods are used under on the job training:

(i) Coaching:

In this method the immediate superior guides and instructs his subordinates as a coach. It is learning through on the job experience because a manager can learn when he is put on a specific job. The immediate superior briefs the trainees what is expected from them and guides them how to effectively achieve them. The coach or immediate superior watches the performance of their trainees and directs them in correcting their mistakes.

Advantages of the Coaching Method:

(a) It is the process of learning by doing.

(b) Even if no executive development programme exists, the executives can coach their subordinates.

(c) Coaching facilitates periodic feedback and evaluation.

(d) Coaching is very useful for developing operative skill and for the orientation of the new executives.

Disadvantages of the Coaching Method:

(a) It requires that the superior should be a good teacher and the guide.

(b) Training atmosphere is not free from the problems and worries of the daily routine.

(c) Trainee may not get sufficient time for making mistakes and learn from the experience.

(ii) Under Study:

The person who is designated as the heir apparent is known as an understudy. In this method the trainee is prepared for performing the work or filling the position of his superior. Therefore a fully trained person becomes capable to replace his superior during his long absence, illness, retirement, transfer, promotion, or death.

Advantages of Under Study Method:

(a) Continuous guidance is received by the trainee from his superior and gets the opportunity to see the total job.

(b) It is a time saving and a practical process.

(c) The superior and the subordinate come close to each other.

(d) Continuity is maintained when superior leaves his position.

Disadvantages of Under Study Method:

(a) The existing managerial practices are perpetuated in this method.

(b) The motivation of the personnel is affected as one subordinate is selected for the higher position in advance.

(c) The subordinate staff may ignore the under study.

(iii) Job Rotation:

Job rotation is a method of development which involves the movement of the manager from one position to another on the planned basis. This movement from one job to another is done according to the rotation schedule. It is also called position rotation.

Advantages of Job Rotation:

(a) By providing variety in work this method helps in reducing the monotony and the boredom.

(b) Inter departmental coordination and cooperation is enhanced through this method.

(c) By developing themselves into generalists, executives get a chance to move up to higher positions.

(d) Each executive’s skills are best utilized.

Disadvantages of Job Rotation:

(a) Disturbance in established operations is caused due to the job rotation.

(b) It becomes difficult for the trainee executive to adjust himself to frequent moves.

(c) Job rotation may demotivate intelligent and aggressive trainees who seek specific responsibility in their chosen responsibility.

(iv) Special Projects Assignment:

In this method a trainee is assigned a project which is closely related to his job. Further sometimes the number of trainee executives is provided with the project assignment which is related to their functional area. This group of trainees is called the project team. The trainee studies the assigned problem and formulates the recommendations on it. These recommendations are submitted in the written form by the trainee to his superior.

Advantages of the Special Projects:

(a) The trainees learn the work procedures and techniques of budgeting.

(b) The trainees come to know the relationship between the accounts and other departments.

(c) It is a flexible training device due to temporary nature of assignments.

(v) Committee Assignment:

In this method the special committee is constituted and is assigned the problem to discuss and to provide the recommendations. This method is similar to the special project assignment. All the trainees participate in the deliberations of the committee. Trainees get acquainted with different viewpoints and alternative methods of problem solving through the deliberations and discussions in the committee. Interpersonal skills of the trainees are also developed.

(vi) Multiple Management:

This method involves the constitution of the junior board of the young executives. This junior board evaluates the major problems and makes the recommendations to the Board of Directors. The junior board learns the decision making skills and the vacancies in the Board of Directors are filled from the members of the junior board who have sufficient exposure to the problem solving.

(vii) Selective Readings:

Under this method the executives read the journal, books, article, magazines, and notes and exchange the news with others. This is done under the planned reading programmes organized by some companies. Reading of the current management literature helps to avoid obsolescence. This method keeps the manager updated with the new developments in the field.

2. Off the Job Training Programme:

The main methods under off the job training programme are:

(i) Special Courses:

Under this method the executives attend the special courses organized by the organisation with the help of the experts from the education field. The employers also sponsor their executives to attend the courses organized by the management institutes. This method is becoming more popular these days but it is more used by the large and big corporate organisations.

(ii) Case Studies:

This method was developed by Harvard Law professor Christopher C. Langdell. In this method a problem or case is presented in writing to a group i.e. a real or hypothetical problem demanding solution is presented in writing to the trainees.

Trainees are required to analyze and study the problem, evaluate and suggest the alternative courses of action and choose the most appropriate solution. Therefore in this method the trainees are provided with the opportunity to apply their skills in the solution of the realistic problems.

(iii) Role Playing:

In role playing the conflicting situation is created and two or more trainees are assigned different roles to play on the spot. They are provided with the written or oral description of the situation and roles to play. The trainees are then provided with the sufficient time, they have to perform their assigned roles spontaneously before the class. This technique is generally used for human relations and the leadership training. This method is used as a supplement to other methods.

(iv) Lectures and Conferences:

In this method the efforts are made to expose the participants to concepts, basic principles, and theories in any particular area. Lecture method emphasizes on the one way communication and conference method emphasizes on two way communication. Through this method the trainee actively participates and his interest is maintained.

(v) Syndicate Method:

Syndicate refers to the group of trainees and involves the analysis of the problem by different groups. Thus in this method, 5 or 6 groups consisting of 10 members are formed. Each group works on the problem on the basis of the briefs and the backgrounds provided by the resource persons. Each group presents their view on the involved issues along with the other groups.

After the presentation these views are evaluated by the resource persons along with the group members. Such exercise is repeated to help the members to look into the right perspective of the problem. This method helps in the development of the analytical and the interpersonal skills of the managers.

(vi) Management Games:

A management game is a classroom exercise, in which teams of students compete against each other to achieve certain common objectives. Since, the trainees are often divided into teams as competing companies; experience is obtained in team work. In development programmes, the management games are used with varying degrees of success. These games are the representatives of the real life situations.

(vii) Brainstorming:

It is a technique to stimulate idea generation for decision making. Brainstorming is concerned with using the brain for storming the problem. It is a conference techniques by which group of people attempt to find the solution for a specific problem by amazing all the ideas spontaneously contributed by the members of the group. In this technique the group of 10 to 15 members is constituted. The members are expected to put their ideas for problem solution without taking into consideration any type of limitations.

Executive Development – Obstacles

The administration of a executive development programme is not an easy task. A number of problems are encountered in the process- how should employees be motivated? How can they make the programme rewarding?

How can they feel the progress of the programme? And how can inertia and resistance to change be broken? A sound programme can be developed only when these problems are first tackled or overcome.

Some of the factors which hamper a executive development are:

(i) Job security of the employees, its stability, and pension; these slow down the mobility of employees and check the recruitment of younger people;

(ii) Supervisors at different levels, especially in the middle management, often feel trapped. They are “frozen”, i.e., there is little prospect of their promotion because of the limited opportunities for advancement available in an establishment. This is especially the case if a man is not ego- involved and does not take pride in his job.

(iii) Home ownership, homesickness, close ties with one’s family, community and social activities inhibit development to a large extent; and when these are accompanied by the absence of job security and chances of promotion, the employees tend to stress the non-job aspects of their lives.

(iv) Relations between superiors and subordinate are often not conducive to management development. When a subordinate is afraid of the wrath of his superiors, or when no challenging situations are offered to him, the chances of his development are greatly reduced.

The superior also finds little incentive for developing subordinates despite lip service, partly because he does not have much time for it, and partly because of his reluctance to promote a subordinate lest he lose a good worker and may have to train fresh personnel of unknown quality.

Executive Development – Requisites for Success Executive Development Programmes

According to K. Prasad (of the Management Training Institute of Hindustan Steel Ltd.), the basic requisites for the success of executive development programmes are:

1. The top management should accept responsibility for getting the policy of development executed.

2. Executive development is essentially a “line job”. It takes place on the job and involves both the man and his boss.

3. Every manager must accept direct responsibility for developing managers under his control on the job, and a high priority should be given to his task.

4. Executive development must be geared to the needs of the company and the individual;

5. A policy of promotion from within is a necessary incentive for managers to develop in an organisation.

6. Executive development starts with the selection of the right materials for managerial ranks. It is essential to ensure that really good material is fed into the programme at the entry levels.

7. There should be a realistic timetable in accordance with the needs of a company. This time­table should take into account the needs for managerial personnel over a sufficiently long period and the resources which are available and which will be required.

In our view, the executive development programme should be based on a definite strategy, which should spell out the type, coverage and objectives of the programme. The multi-tier supervisory and executive development programme should start from the first line supervisor and go all the way up to the top management.

This programme should not only be looked upon as something meant for the “limping horses” in the organisation; it should be for the “high fliers” as well. In view of knowledge explosion and the consequent threat of managerial obsolescence, such programmes should be meant for everyone in an organisation and not just for the “weak ones”.

The training division should not be a dumping ground for people found to be unsuitable for other jobs; it should be manned by a group of smart and successful executives drawn from various functional areas and disciplines. A multi- disciplinary approach should be emphasised in training programmes rather than the purely personal flavour that is often found in them.

Executive Development – How to Evaluate Development of Executives?

In the competitive scenario, where the focus is on efficiency and profitability and the return on investment (RoI) on all the activities of the organization, executive development cannot be an exception to the phenomenon.

The evaluation of the process assumes importance from the following perspectives:

i. Improving the quality of the training and development process.

ii. Improving the efficiency and competency of the trainers.

iii. Making improvements in the system to make it more responsive and realistic.

iv. Aligning the training activities to the organizational objectives.

v. Building the cost implications of the training into the organizational budget.

vi. Evaluating the RoI on account of training and development to justify further investment.

vii. Changing the perception of the management on training as an expenditure to more as an investment for the future growth of the organization. The levels of evaluation include the reaction level, immediate level, intermediate level, and ultimate level.

For the purpose of evaluation, it is essential to collect the data for which there should be appropriate measures for data collection, both during the course of the training programme and after the training programme.

Some of the methods being used by experts are self-complete questionnaires, interviews, observations, and desk research. The desk research involves analysis of the existing data to view the trends and also the expectations. It is used extensively since it depends upon the existing data and involves low cost and less amount of time.