Everything you need to know about management development. Management development is a part of a large process of development and learning which a significant area of human development is.
In human society there is a continuous growth which takes place through a continuous process of exploration, discovery and acquisition of knowledge.
Executive or management development is a planned process of learning and growth designed to bring behavioural change among the executives.It is continuous process of learning. It implies that there will be a change in knowledge and behavior of the individuals undergoing development programme. The employee will be able to perform his present job better and will increase his potential for future work.
In the opinion of Molander, “Management development is a conscious and systematic process to control the development of managerial resources in the organisation for the achievement of goals and strategies.”
In this article we will discuss about management development. Learn about:- 1. Introduction to Management Development 2. Meaning of Management Development 3. Definitions 4. Concept 5. Need 6. Characteristics and Purpose 7. Basic Features and Primary Aims 8. Principles 9. Techniques 10. Programme 11. Indian Scenario.
Management Development in HRM: Meaning, Concept, Need, Techniques and Programme
- Introduction to Management Development
- Meaning of Management Development
- Definitions of Management Development
- Concept of Management Development
- Need for Management Development
- Characteristics and Purpose of Management Development
- Basic Features and Primary Aims of Management Development
- Principles of Management Development
- Techniques of Management Development
- Management Development Programme (MDP)
- Management Development in India
Management Development – Introduction
Management development is a part of a large process of development and learning which a significant area of human development is. In human society there is a continuous growth which takes place through a continuous process of exploration, discovery and acquisition of knowledge.
When we talk about management development, one is likely to overlook the total process of development which takes into account the development of all employee. It is an educational and theoretical knowledge and managerial skills in an organized manner.
The main aim of this education is to increase the ability of managers for betterment. Management development consists of all the means by which management learn to improve their behaviour and performance.
Those in the field of organizational behaviour tend to be over conscious of the needs for management development without – paying significant attention to ensure that the entire segment of industrial and business activity is viewed as a development process and is attuned to the overall objectives of the society.
It is true that the development of leadership constitutes an important area and it has vital links in mobilizing the resources of an organization. It is not possible to employ resources to organize an all-round developmental activity immediately, but an organisation tries to apportion to its own resources in such a long duration.
The concern for this stems from the basic necessity to groom those who are in the activities of a larger segment of the industrial world are properly and effectively trained. These men need to be given opportunities for realizing their potential in the interest of an organization.
In India, where one-third of the population lives below the poverty line and there is a high degree of illiteracy, there are insurmountable barriers in the way of achieving developmental.
Management Development – Meaning
“Executive or management development is a planned process of learning and growth designed to bring behavioural change among the executives.”
It is continuous process of learning. It implies that there will be a change in knowledge and behavior of the individuals undergoing development programme. The employee will be able to perform his present job better and will increase his potential for future work.
Managers develop themselves by participating in formal training courses organised by the organisation. They also make use of actual job experience in learning new behavior and the organisation must provide opportunities for development of its managers. But an equal, but more important, counterpart to the efforts of the organisation is those of the individuals. Self-development is an important concept in the whole programme of executive development.
Management development is a process in which managers working at different levels learn and improve their ability, capability, knowledge and skills for improving the performance of individual as well as organisation. The effectiveness of managers at work contributes a lot to the success of every organisation.
The new approach of human resource management is that money used in development of employees and managers is considered as an investment and not as a cost. Along with their jobs the managerial staff is provided opportunities to learn and improve their competencies. This whole process is known as management development.
The managerial staff is prepared to improve their performance on present jobs and preparing them for further assignments also. Management development is a systematic process of training and growth by which managerial personnel gain and supply skills, knowledge, attitudes and insights to manage the work in their organisations effectively and efficiently.
Management development programme includes the activities — short courses, leadership courses, management education and training programmes, coaching, guiding and mentoring. These programmes can be conducted in-house or outside by consultants or experts.
Management Development – Definition: By Leading Management Experts: Yoder, Armstrong and Molander
Management development is defined by the leading management experts as follows:
“A conscious and systematic process to control the development of managerial resources in the organisation for the achievement of goals and strategies.”
An attempt to improve managerial effectiveness through a planned and deliberate learning process.
“It is a programme of training and planned personal development purporting to prepare and aid managers in their present and future jobs.” (Yoder)
“Management development is a business led process. The business determines what kind of managers it requires to accomplish its strategic goals as well as how to obtain and develop such managers. Although there is stress of self-development, the business must indicate the directions towards which self-development should occur?” (Armstrong)
In the opinion of Molander, “management development is a conscious and systematic process to control the development of managerial resources in the organisation for the achievement of goals and strategies.”
That function which forms deep understanding of business goals and organisational requirements, undertakes are –
(i) To forecast need, skill mixes and profiles for many positions and level.
(ii) To design and recommend the professional, career and personal development to ensure competence.
(iii) To move from the concept of management to the concept of ‘managing’.
The process of ensuring that an organisation has the appropriate management skills and competencies to meet its developing needs. Existing skills and abilities are assessed and actual or potential shortfalls are identified with the aim of ameliorating them. Various programmes and interventions may be used for this purpose; including training, mentoring, or role-play and team- building exercises. – A Dictionary of Business and Management.
“The process of developing knowledge, skills, ability, and capability called competences of managerial and potential managerial staff of the organisation. It is a planned process to manage the changes by talented and motivated managers for improving overall effectiveness of the organisation”.
From the study of various definitions of management development it is said that it is an intervention for development of the organisation. This is the approach of the management to deal with the planned changes in the organisation. Keeping in view the changing needs of the environment the managerial staff is educated, trained and equipped with the competencies so that as and when the need arises can be managed effectively.
The objective of management development process is to improve the effectiveness of the organisation through effectiveness of managers and potential managers in future. Through this the organisation improves internal strength of manpower. The approach is focusing present as well as future.
Management Development – Need: Social Obligation, Effect of Globalization, Effective Functioning of Line Management and a Few More
The survivality, growth and development of any organization depends on the quality of workforce it has, and the quality of such workforce depends on the quality of management personnel (that means skill, knowledge, ability, attitudes of management people) of the company.
Since, procurement, motivation, development of workers are part of managerial functions, qualitative functioning of such activities are influenced greatly by degree and qualities of skill, ability, competencies and attitudes of such managerial personnel.
Hence, management development programmes are needed to compensate and strengthen the deficit areas of knowledge, skill, abilities of the executives so that they can perform their present job well and also future job when assigned in terms of objectives / strategies of the company.
However, the need for management development can be ascertained from the following:
1. Social Obligation:
Organization is a part of society. Society has expectations, demands for its growth and development from societal members including organization/s functioning in the society. Organization can fulfil societal demands / requirement if managers are capable enough to analyse social obligations to present cases as spokesperson of the society to the company, to develop a bridge between company thinking and societal expectations, to make the society aware of Contributions Company made for amelioration and well-being of the members of the society.
Hence, management development is needed to prepare capable and effective managers.
2. Effect of Globalization:
Because of globalization, multinational corporations (MNCs) and trans-national corporations (TNCs) have entered in the market resulting in, stiff competition amongst the market players. In such a situation, it becomes difficult for the domestic companies to survive in the context of quality goods they supply and the price they fix for the customers.
It is, therefore, imperative need for the companies to have world class workers for production of world class product at reasonable cost; and the companies can have such dynamic workforce if, they have highly skilled, committed, dynamic pool of management personnel who can prepare the workers’ community according to need, requirement of the companies. So, here is the necessity of management development to face the challenges emanated from the globalization.
3. Effective Functioning of Line Management:
Line management/technocrats are well conversant with technicalities of production activities but, they may lack adequate skill, abilities in human relations development and conceptual areas of the company. For effective functioning of their work they need improvement, development of their skills in those areas where they lack.
Hence, management development programmes are required to be conducted to promote enhancement of human skill and conceptual skill of technocrats, line managers of organizations so that, they can perform their job better in terms of need, requirement of the companies.
4. Excellent Quality of Work of Non-Technical Higher Management:
Technical skill is required for excellent performance by nontechnical managers. Requirement of technical skill of management personnel varies in degree considering grade/strata of the management to which they belong. Higher level management may need some knowledge/skill in technical areas and so, for better functioning they need to acquire skill in this area.
Management development programme designed to impart technical skill to such non-technical higher management personnel may facilitate to deliver excellent quality of work by them.
5. Use of Latest Technologies:
Every organization needs to use latest technologies in its operational and service activities so that, quality goods at minimum cost can be produced to face competition with the market players but, these latest technologies cannot be effectively used if, the managers are not given proper training to have acquaintances with technologies, its operative areas, use, effectiveness, probable problems, etc.
6. Change in Economic Policy:
Change in economic policy creates a new business climate and work culture in organization where re-inventing of management practices appears to be of much necessity. New areas are required to be explored for expansion and diversification of business; continuous improvement of quality in services and products needs to be emphasised; issues like retention of customers and search out for new customer be prioritized.
For all these, executives need an enrichment of knowledge, specific thought pattern, creative thinking, analytical ability, meaningful vision and foresightedness, and this is possible through organizing tailor-made development programmes which may enable higher management to explore new areas and to practice in the company to confront changes.
7. Smooth and Effective Functioning of Business Activities:
Workers perform business and industrial activities under the guidance and supervision of management. Management personnel play the role of guide, coach, motivator, leader of the people at work. Workers can be effective if the decisions, directions, guidance of the management are proper, perfect and accurate.
So, for smooth, effective and uninterrupted functioning of business activities managers should have leadership qualities, proper knowledge, skill in decision making and also should introduce schemes like employee involvement, empowerment and participation in organization. For all this, management development programme should be of much use.
Management Development – Characteristics and Purpose
The characteristics of management development are as follows:
1. It is an organised process of learning rather than a haphazard or trial and error approach.
2. It is a long term process as managerial skills cannot be developed overnight.
4. Management development aims at preparing managers for better performance and helping them to realise their full potential.
5. Executive development is guided self-development. An executive can provide opportunities for development of its present and potential managers. Bill the image for learning has to come from the executive itself. Executive development is possible only when the individual has the desire to learn and practice what he learns.
The organisation can provide the environment for development or advancement but the initiative for development has to be taken by the individual himself. Unless the person has the required potential and urge, he cannot be considered fit for development. He can also be given the necessary guidance to help him face the present job’s problems or to prepare him for the higher jobs. Training is also necessary to prevent obsolescence of knowledge and skills of individuals.
Executive development programmes seek to develop the overall personality of the executives and not only the skills necessary to do the job efficiently. The job of executive is a very challenging one. So, the executive development programmes should be more concerned with conceptual and human skills of the executives. A comprehensive development programme uses various learning aids to increase the knowledge, decision making ability, skill in dealing with people and maturity of the managers.
Purpose of Management Development:
The purpose or objective of management development programmes are discussed below:
1. To sustain better performance of managers throughout their careers.
2. To improve the existing performance of managers at all levels.
3. To encourage existing managers to increase their capacity to assume and handle greater responsibility.
4. To enable the organisation to have the availability of required number of managers with the required skills to meet the present and anticipated (future) needs of the organisation.
5. To replace elderly executives who have risen from the ranks by highly competent and academically qualified professionals.
6. To provide opportunities to the executives to fulfil their career aspirations.
7. To ensure that the managerial resources of the organisation are utilised optimally.
Management Development – Basic Features and Primary Aims
Generally, management development related to a systematic process of learning and growth by which managerial personnel gain and also apply to knowledge, skills, attitudes and insights to manage the work in their organisations effectively and efficiently. It is an educational process through which executives learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge and managerial skills in an organised manner.
The main aim of formal education for manager is to increase his ability to learn from experience. Management development involves relating experience to learning.
Basic features of Management Development has been explained in the followings:
1. Management development is a planned and organized process of learning.
2. It is an ongoing or never ending exercise. It continuous throughout an executive’s entire professional career because there is no end to learning.
3. It is a long-term process as managerial skills cannot be developed overnight
4. It is guided self-development. An organisation can provide full opportunities for development of its present and potential managers.
5. It aims at preparing managers for better performance and helping them to realise their full potential.
The primary aims are:
(1) To ensure that the company is staffed both now and in the future with a sufficient number of managers with necessary skills, experience and ability to secure continued growth and profitability – the right man or woman at the right time in the right place. Thus we will have a steady source of competent people at all levels to meet organisational needs at all times.
(2) To check that human resources of a company are being properly and fully used, and that potential and talent in human terms are neither wasted nor overlooked, and they are offered ample and timely scope to grow, so that both individuals as well as organisational needs are adequately met. This will ensure optimum utilisation of human capital.
(3) To provide an opportunity for staff within a company to prepare themselves for higher assignments and to reach their maximum capabilities.
The staff should be enabled to fulfil their career expectations by training that will enable them to do a bigger and a richer job which they can get through a sound promotion policy, viz., promotion from within.
In addition, there are many other objectives, such as to prevent managerial obsolescence (becoming out-of-date), to prepare for new business and expansions, to replace old executives with younger talents, to Indianise management, to promote a high morale and good organisational climate, to adapt quickly to changing conditions, to secure more harmonious teamwork, to promote productivity, profits and so on.
Management Development – Principles for Maintaining Effective Development
Based on research and experience, a number of principles have been evolved which should serve as guides in creating and maintaining an effective management development.
Such principles are as follows:
1. All development is self-development – It means that people are developed not so much by others as by themselves. This principle highlights the importance of an individual candidate’s inner motivation and basic abilities. The primary responsibility must rest upon the person to be developed.
2. Development is closely akin to education – Development is more closely akin to education than it is to specific training in skills because the development programme aims at overall growth of an individual to enable him/her to achieve the desired objectives.
3. Gearing to individual differences – Too much emphasis should not be laid on uniformity of development efforts. Instead, development efforts should be geared to individual differences. An individual must be helped, and the development programme should be so planned as can create an environment in which self-development is stimulated and facilitated.
4. Long-range process – An executive cannot be developed just by taking a course, holding a job, reading a book, or attending a seminar or conference. Such development is rather a long-range process with individual development programmes running into many years.
5. Adequate facilities – For encouraging self-development, it is necessary to create an effective organisational climate, making all developmental facilities available.
6. Adequate rewards – The people who display interest and activity in development should be rewarded appropriately.
7. Effective immediate supervisor – The immediate supervisor exercises a key influence. The supervisor should emphasise on high-quality performance, supportive coaching and proper counselling.
Management Development – 2 Important Techniques: On-the-Job and Off-the-Job Techniques
Manager needs include managerial skills and needs. Managerial skills include decision-making skills and interpersonal skills. Manager needs include job knowledge, organization knowledge, general knowledge, specific individual needs and other needs. Various management development techniques are grouped under two categories viz., manager needs and on-the-job and off-the-job techniques.
There are mainly two types of techniques by which managers can acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes and make themselves competent managers. One is through formal training and the other is through on-the-job experiences.
On-the-job training is of utmost importance as the real learning takes place only when the learner uses what he has learnt. The saying “An ounce of practice is worth tons of theory” is true whoever said it. But it should also be remembered that class-room training or pedagogical techniques have also got their own importance in gaining new knowledge, and learning new techniques, and broader concepts.
Learning is haphazard without background and, learning can never be called true learning if it is just theory without practice. When on-the-job training is properly balanced with the classroom training, the real learning takes place.
The following are some of the important on-the-job and off-the-job techniques of management development.
1. On-the-Job Techniques:
These are the most widely used techniques. No other technique may interest the trainee so much as these do since the location of the learner is not an artificial one as the classroom. The success of these techniques depends on the immediate supervisor and how good a teacher he is. On-the-job techniques are especially useful for certain groups like scientific and technical personnel.
Though the costs of training initially appear to be low they may turn out to be high when wastages of all kinds are considered under this type of training.
This method of learning in isolation may prove to be inadequate but in combination with the other techniques will be excellent.
The important on-the-job training techniques are:
II. Job Rotation,
III. Under Study,
IV. Multiple Management.
In coaching the trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who acts as an instructor and teaches job knowledge and skills to the trainee. He tells him what he wants him to do, how it can be done and follows up while it is being done and corrects errors.
“Coaching should be distinguished from counseling…. Counseling… involves a discussion between the boss and his subordinates of areas concerned with the man’s hopes, fears, emotions, and aspirations. It reaches into very personal and delicate matters. To be done correctly, counseling demands considerable background and ability on the part of the counselor. If carried out poorly, it may do considerable damage.”
The act of coaching can be done in several ways. The executive apart from asking them to do the routine work may ask them to tackle some complex problem by giving them chance to participate in decision-making.
One of the important limitations of this technique is that the individual cannot develop much beyond the limits of his own boss’s abilities.
II. Job Rotation:
The transferring of executives from job to job and from department to department in a systematic manner is called Job Rotation. When a manager is posted to a new job as part of such a programme, it is not merely an orientation assignment. He has to assume the full responsibility and perform all kinds of duties.
The idea behind this is to give him the required diversified skills and a broader outlook, which are very important at the senior management levels. It is upto the management to provide a variety of job experiences for those who have the potential for higher ranks before they are promoted.
Job rotation increases the interdepartmental cooperation and reduces the monotony of work. It makes the executives in general management and does not allow them to confine themselves to their specialised field only.
“An understudy is a person who is in training to assume at a future time, the full responsibility of the position currently held by his superior.” This method supplies the organisation a person with as much competence as the superior to fill his post which may fall vacant because of promotion, retirement or transfer.
An understudy may be chosen by the department or its head. He will then teach what all his job involves and gives him a feel of what his job is. This under study also learns decision-making as his superior involves him in the discussion of daily operating problems as well as long-term problems. The leadership skills can also be taught by assigning him the task of supervising two or three people of the department.
IV. Multiple Management:
Multiple Management is a system in which permanent advisory committees of managers study problems of the company and make recommendations to higher management. It is also called Junior-board of executives system. These committees discuss the actual problems and different alternative solutions after which the decisions are taken.
The technique of multiple management has certain advantages over the other techniques.
(i) Members have the opportunity to acquire the knowledge of various aspects of business.
(ii) It helps to identify the members who have the skills and capabilities of an effective manager.
(iii) Members have the opportunity to participate in the group interaction and thereby gain the practical experience of group decision-making.
(iv) It is relatively an inexpensive method; and
(v) Considerable number of executives can be developed in a short span of time.
Managers learn and acquire various skills and knowledge by doing the job assigned. This technique can be used along with other techniques of management development.
Because of the fact that on-the-job techniques have their own limitations, these off-the-job techniques are considered important to fill those gaps.
The following are some of the important off-the-job techniques:
(I) The case study
(II) Incident method
(III) Role playing
(IV) In basket method
(V) Business game
(VI) Sensitivity training
(VIII) Grid training
(XI) Behaviour modelling
(XII) Transactional Analysis
(XIII) Structured Insight
(XIV) Special Courses
(XV) Special Meetings
(XVI) Special Readings, and
(XVII) Specific Projects.
(I) The Case Study:
Case is a description of management problem/situation as viewed or presented to a decision-maker. Cases are prepared on the basis of actual business situations that happened in various organisations. The trainees are given cases for discussing and deciding upon the case. Then they are asked to identify the apparent and hidden problems for which they have to suggest solutions.
The situation is generally described in a comprehensive manner and the trainee has to distinguish the significant facts from the insignificant, analyse the facts, identify the different alternative solutions, select and suggest the best. This whole exercise improves the participant’s decision-making skills by sharpening their analytical and judging abilities.
Why Case Study?
i. Enhances analytic, problem solving and critical thinking skills.
ii. Participants can master complex knowledge, skills and attitude areas.
iii. Active participation.
iv. Encourage learning process- Questioning, interpreting.
v. Enhances team problem skills and interaction skills.
(II) Incident Method:
This method was developed by Paul Pigours. It aims to develop the trainee in the areas of intellectual ability, practical judgment and social awareness.
Incidents are prepared on the basis of actual situations which happened in different organisations. Each employee in the training group is asked to study the incident and to make short-term decisions in the role of a person who has to cope with the incident in the actual situation.
Later, the group studies and discusses the incident and takes decisions relating to incident, based on the group interaction and decisions taken by each member. Thus, this method is similar to a combination of case method and in-basket method.
(III) Role Playing:
A problem situation is simulated by asking the participants to assume the role of particular person in the situation. The participant interacts with other participants assuming different roles. Mental set of the role is described but no dialogue is provided.
The whole play may be tape-recorded and the trainee may thus be given the opportunity to examine his or her own performance.
Role playing gives the participants vicarious experiences which are of much use to understand people better. This method teaches human relations skills through actual practice. The exemplary role playing situations are: a grievance discussion, employment interview, a sales presentation, etc.
(IV) In-Basket Method:
The trainees are first given background information about a simulated company, its products, key personnel, various memoranda, requests and all data pertaining to the firm. The trainee has to understand all this, make notes, delegate tasks and prepare memos within a specified amount of time.
Abilities that this kind of exercise develops are:
i. Situational judgment in being able to recall details, establishes priorities, interrelate items and determine need for more information.
ii. Social sensitivity in exhibiting courtesy in written notes, scheduling meetings with personnel involved and explaining reasons for actions taken.
iii. Willingness to make decision and take action.
(V) Business Games:
Under this method, the trainees are divided into groups or different teams. Each team has to discuss and arrive at decisions concerning such subjects as production, pricing, research expenditure, advertising, etc., assuming it to be the management of a simulated firm.
The other teams assume themselves as competitors and react to the decision. This immediate feedback helps to know the relative performance of each team. The team’s co-operative decision promotes greater interaction among participants and gives them the experience in co-operative group processes.
All this develops organisational ability, quickness of thinking, leadership qualities and the ability to adopt under stress.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Business Games:
i. Provides efficient learning situation
ii. Highest level of involvement of participants
iii. Enhance Decision-Making ability
iv. Analyse situations logically
v. Can be used for cross-functional areas also.
i. Improper handling may cause confusion
ii. Some games lack validation
iii. May be far from reality
iv. Too costly
v. Time consuming.
(VI) Sensitivity Training:
The main objective of sensitivity training is the “Development of awareness of and sensitivity of behavioural patterns of oneself and others.” This development results in the (i) increased openness with others, (ii) greater concern for others, (iii) increased tolerance for individual differences, (iv) less ethnic prejudice, (v) understanding of group processes, (vi) enhanced listening skills, (vii) increased trust and support.
The role played by the trainee here is not a structured one as in role play. It is a laboratory situation where one gets a chance to know more about himself and the impact of his behaviour on others. It develops the managerial sensitivity, trust, and respect for others. One of the limitations of sensitivity training is that it exacts a huge emotional cost from the manager
Under this technique the situation is duplicated in such a way that it carries a closer resemblance to the actual job situation. The trainee experiences a feeling that he is actually encountering all those conditions. Then he is asked to assume a particular role in the circumstances and solve the problems by making a decision. He is immediately given a feedback of his performance.
One of the limitations of this method is that it is very difficult to duplicate the situation to the extent of making the trainee feel the pressures and realities of actual decision-making on the job. The very fact that the trainee knows that it is an artificial situation prevents him from experiencing all that he experiences in real job situation.
(VIII) Managerial Grid:
It is a six phase programme lasting from three to five years. It starts with upgrading managerial skills, continues to group improvement; improves inter group relations, goes into corporate planning, develops implementation method and ends with an evaluation phase. The grid represents several possible leadership styles. Each style represents a different combination of two basic orientations – concern for people and concern for production.
A conference is a meeting of several people to discuss the subject of common interest. But contribution from members can be expected as each one builds upon ideas of other participants. This method is best suited when a problem has to be analysed and examined from different viewpoints.
It helps the members develop their ability to modify their attitudes. Participants enjoy their method of learning as they get an opportunity to express their views.
The success of the conference depends on the conference leader. In order to make the conference a success, the conference leader must be able to see that the discussion is thorough and concentrate on the central problem by encouraging all the participants to develop alternatives and present their viewpoints and by preventing domination by a few participants.
It is the simplest of all techniques. This is the best technique to present and explains series of facts, concepts, and principles. The lecturer organises the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of talk.
The main uses of lectures in executive development are:
(i) It is direct and can be used for a larger group of trainees.
(ii) It presents the overview and scope of the subject clearly.
(iii) It presents the principles, concepts, policies and experiences in the shortest time. Thus, it is a time saving technique.
The lectures do not give scope for student participation and may sometimes be boring which in turn hinders learning. Skills can be learnt only by doing and therefore lectures are of no use for technical skills.
(XI) Behaviour Modelling:
Behaviour modelling is an approach that demonstrates desired behaviour and provides trainees the chance to practice and role play/imitate those behaviours and receive feedback. This technique combines several training methods. This technique involves four basic components viz.,
a. Learning points – Learning points, which are normally a sequence of behaviours, are to be identified and taught.
b. Model – Participants view films/videotapes in which a model manager’s action is portrayed.
(XII) Transactional Analysis:
This is developed and popularized by Eric Berne through his book on “Games People Play” and Thomas Harris through his book on “I’m OK, You’re OK” respectively. Transactional analysis is the analysis of transactions between two or more persons. The major areas of transactional analysis can be explained through ego states, transactions and stroking.
Ego is a hypothetical construct and is used to help explain the complex dynamics of the human personality. Transactional Analysis uses three ego states viz., Child (C) Ego; Adult (A) Ego and Parent (P) ego. A number of transactions take place between two or more individuals. They are classified as complementary, crossed and ulterior transactions. Crossed and ulterior transactions result in conflict whereas complementary transactions are desirable to improve inter-personal relations.
(XIII) Structured Insight:
Under structured insight, trainers collect data with regard to attitudes and values of trainees, and compare the data with the chosen model of behaviours. Then the trainers provide deviations between the chosen models and the trainee’s behaviour and enable the trainee to develop some insight into makeup and implications of their chosen modes of behaviours. This process develops the trainee to modify his/her behaviours in the lines of chosen model behaviours.
(XIV) Special Courses:
Various business schools, management institutes and consultancy organisations conduct special courses in management development. These organisations conduct generic and company-based customized special courses. Various companies depute their managers to these courses. Trainees learn and acquire special skills and knowledge in these special courses.
(XV) Special Meetings:
Companies, business schools and consultancy organisations organise special meetings in order to train managers and enable them to acquire specific skills and knowledge.
(XVI) Special Readings:
Managers are provided with special papers, books, reports and the like with a specific note. Managers read these specific notes from the books and papers and enrich their specific managerial knowledge.
(XVII) Specific Projects:
Companies depute managers on a specific assignment in various projects. Managers while working in these projects learn multiple skills and knowledge under flexible and comprehensive environments.
Management Development – Programme: Components and Evaluation
The process of management development begins with top management’s recognition of the need for MDP, Development of suitable policy guidelines and assignment of special responsibility for executing the policy create a favourable climate of on-the-job growth, personal improvement and development of managers.
A special committee of senior executives will look after planning and guiding management development. The personnel manager and special training staff will administer the routine of MDP.
Components or Ingredients of Management Development Programme:
The essential components or steps of a comprehensive management development programme are discussed below under the following heads:
(i) Looking at organisation’s objectives;
(ii) Ascertaining development needs;
(iii) Appraisal of present management talents;
(iv) Preparation of Manpower Inventory;
(v) Planning of individual development programmes;
(vi) Establishment of training and development programmes;
(vii) Programme evaluation.
(i) Looking at Organisations’ Objectives, this is the first step in executive development programme. The objects tell “where we are going” and will develop a framework from which the executive need can be determined.
(ii) Ascertaining Development Needs calls for organisational planning and forecast of its needs for present and future growth. This is generally based upon a comprehensive job description, job specification and job analysis with particular reference to the kind of management work performed, the kind of executives needed, and the kind of education, experience, training, special knowledge, skills, personal traits, etc., required for such work. Most companies train their own executives, except when they experience a critical shortage of specialised high-level talent. In the latter case, executives are hired from outside.
(iii) An Appraisal of Present Management Talent is made with a view to determining qualitatively the type of personnel that is available within an organisation itself. The performance of a management individual is compared with the standard expected of him. His personal traits are also analysed so that a value judgment may be made of his potential for advancement.
(iv) A management Manpower Inventory is prepared for the purpose of getting complete information about each management individual’s bio-data and educational qualifications, the results of tests and performance appraisal. It may also be maintained on replacement tables or charts. From these, it can be known that several capable executives are available for training for higher positions.
An analysis of the information will bring to the attention of the management the potential obsolescence of some of the present executives, the inexperience or shortage of managers in certain functions, and skill deficiencies relative to the future needs of the organisation.
(v) The Planning of Individual Development Programmes is undertaken to meet the needs of different individuals, keeping in view the differences in their attitudes and behaviour, and in their physical, intellectual and emotional qualities.
The weak and strong points of an individual are known from his performance appraisal reports; and, on the basis of these, tailor-made programmes are framed and launched. Such programmes give due attention to the interests and goals of the subordinates as well as the training and development opportunities which exist within an organisation.
(vi) Establishment of Training and Development Programmes this job is done by the personnel department. A comprehensive and well-conceived programme is generally prepared, containing concentrated brief courses (often called crash programmes).
Such courses may be in the field of human relations, time and motion study, creative thinking, memory training, decision-making, leadership courses, and courses in professional or academic institutions, depending on organisational needs and the time and the cost involved.
(vii) Evaluating Development Programmes evaluation is the systematic collection and assessment of information for deciding how best to utilise available training resources in order to achieve organisational objectives.
The evaluation of training has been defined by Hamblin as “any attempt to obtain information (feedback) on the effects of a training programme and to assess the value of training in the light of that information.”
According to him, the objectives of evaluating development programmes are:
(a) Reactions objectives, that is, objectives intended to “stimulate a high level of involvement and interest.”
(b) Learning objectives that is those objectives which are concerned with acquiring knowledge, skills and attitudes.
(c) Job behaviour objectives, which are concerned with achieving over-all results.
Other authorities are of the opinion that an evaluation of training is helpful because:
(a) It discloses the relevance of programmes to an organisation’s needs, i.e., what changes are to be made in existing programmes to make them more effective;
(b) It reveals whether programmes have contributed to the effectiveness of an organisation; and
(c) It tells us whether programmes need to be continued or replaced by other relevant activities, which might aid in the achievement of an organisation’s goals.
According to Tracey, the most important means of evaluating development programmes are:
(a) Observation that is, observing the behaviour of people. Such observation must be specific, systematic, quantitative, recorded and expert;
(b) Ratings, under which various elements of the training system should be rated independently by several raters. The elements of rating are the trainees, instructors, equipment, materials, training aids and facilities;
(c) Trainee surveys, concerned with knowing the opinion of the trainees about the programmes;
(d) Trainee interviews, at which ideas and views of the trainees are elicited.
Two other methods may be added to this test. One, measuring the score secured by a trainee in tests and examination; two, measuring changes that might have taken place in such areas as costs, quality, quantity of work, grievances.
Evaluation of Management Development Program:
The program should be evaluated to determine the revisions and to win the continued support of top management. Success can be measured by individual and organisational goal attainment, the actions that are completed, and any changes in performance measures and attitudes.
The effectiveness of executive development programs can be found in terms of the improvements in the participant’s abilities and responsibilities for their own career planning. It is also discovered in the employee’s perceptions of better job opportunities, promotional opportunities for growth and success.
Managers may view an executive development program as successful if it offers them staffing flexibility or helps them to identify pools of qualified employees to meet forecasted openings. Organisations may find a program to be useful if it increases the attractiveness of the organisation to potential employees or raises the motivation and productivity of current employees.
For the individual firms, there are various methods of evaluating program effectiveness. The one most frequently found and least effective is measurement of the group’s response after the training has been completed. In most programs, the opinions obtained from trainees about the worth of the experience are almost always favourable. A sounder approach is that of measuring the group performance both before and after the training.
Comparison can then be made to determine if organisational behaviour has improved within the group. Finally, and even more effective method is to give trainees some time such as six months or a year and measure the effects of training on leadership style or their actual performance after a period of time.
With reinforcement by organisational supervisors, the values taught by the training programme can begin to take form in the work situation.
Management Development – In India
Although a great deal of progress has been made in the area of training and development in Asian continent and particularly in India, still we are not there yet. A great deal of work has to be done. The dependent attitude of the subordinate towards the boss created over the years does not provide any incentive for independent action or motivation for participation.
The subordinate feels that if he or she doesn’t go to the boss for permission or instructions, there is no way for the boss to know how well he or she is doing. Even in group situations, the subordinates expect bosses to state the problem and solution. The subordinates limit their participation to a very careful way of pointing out the possible problem areas without, however, directly contradicting their bosses.
With this type of attitude, it becomes difficult to develop the subordinates so that they can be moved up. Of course, this situation is changing as more and more multinational companies are moving into India and managers are sent for training and development abroad.
Experiences have shown that when managers are given an opportunity to participate they do respond well. When such people are available in multinational companies, the expatriates are slowly replaced by the locals. The assumptions which underlie Theory X seem to no longer hold true. A high degree of objectivity can be seen in many of the human resource activities whether it is selection, performance assessment or reward systems.
As a result of this objectivity, best talent is drawn into the multinational companies. The local organizations are feeling the impact and as a result forced to be objective in their decisions pertaining to the management of human resources. Without such objectivity, they may have to sacrifice efficiency and success.
A long way to go before the emphasis on developing executives receives importance in companies in India. There must be a shift in thinking that managerial development is a cost to an asset building activity the return of which is great.
Due to the level of education and exposure to western practices, Indian managers may find the adaptation to western management practices a bit easier. They tend to absorb the western management practices in a relatively shorter time. As the years go by, most of the management practices will become universally applicable.
There will be a greater mobility of managers in all directions and not simply from the West to the East. Once again, we will be talking about the universality of management practices. The Japanese have contributed a great deal to the management education and development which are emulated by other countries and cultures.