Everything you need to know about the levels of management. The word ‘management’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Manus’ which means hands.
Thus, management refers to handling a particular activity. Management refers to the process of setting certain pre-determined objectives and achieving them through optimum utilization of resources. Management is applicable everywhere i.e., it is required in every organization.
However, the levels of management depend on the size of the organization. There may be a small scale, medium scale or a large scale organization.
Management of a small scale organization is simpler as compared to a large scale organization. In big organizations, there are a large number of employees. Management is therefore divided into different levels. Generally, there are three levels of management.
The levels of Management are as follows:- 1. Top Level Management 2. Middle Level Management 3. Lower Level Management.
Additionally, learn about the functions and roles of each level of management.
What are the Levels of Management: Top Level, Middle Level and Lower Level Management
What are the Levels of Management – 3 Major Levels: Top Level Management, Middle Level Management and Supervisory Level Management
In managing, the affairs of an organization, it is very difficult to look after each and every aspect by a single individual – who is called as manager. Hence, the whole work is divided into different classes and assigned to the managers at different levels. For this purpose, the category of managers has been divided into- (a) Top level managers, (b) Middle level managers, and (c) Operational/Lower level managers.
Each level manager has to take decisions in various areas belonging to their work. For example say Managers of Production- Top level managers will deal with strategic decision such as what products are to be manufactured, in how much quantities, what are the delivery dates etc. The second level manager, has to plan for resources, arranging the resources, controlling the resources and allocation of job orders to the first line managers. In turn the first line managers will plan operations, tools, speeds etc.
The relative importance of functions varies along the managerial levels. People of an organization are arranged in a hierarchy. Such as the man at the top is superior and the rest under him are subordinates. When there are departments each man heads a department is termed as superior of that department and people under him are subordinates. Depending on the organizational set up there are many superiors and many subordinates in the line of command.
Management levels have been classified by Breach into three categories; they are:
1. Top Level Management,
2. Middle Level Management, and
3. Supervisory Level or Operational Level Management.
1. Top Level Management:
Top Level Management of an Organization consists of Board of Directors, Chairman and an Executive officer. Generally, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman Positions are combined into one. Sometimes, Chairman may remain part-time in an organization. This level deals with strategic decisions of the organization depending on the resources and facilities available at the disposal. It integrates the functions of whole organization with the help of other level managers.
In overall relationship, it requires maintaining relationship with the elements in the organizational environment like Government, Trade Associations, Suppliers, and Financial Institutions. In general, set up of the organization the Board members may be from outside whereas Chief Executive is a regular employee of the organization.
The Board of Directors is an elected body, elected by the promoters of the business i.e., shareholders. The board is answerable to the shareholders regarding the management of affairs of the organization. The board will act according to the limitations imposed by Memorandum of Association and Article of Association of Company as well as the provisions of Companies act.
The functions of the Board of Directors can be listed as below:
(i) Board is the trustee of the property of the company and can use the property to run the organization (trusteeship).
(ii) Appointment of Chief Executive and to build the overall structure of the organization.
(iii) To make organizational policies and set the objectives of the business.
(iv) Approve the financial matters.
(v) To check the activities of Top Managerial staff and to control their activities.
(vi) To attend the legal functions as provided under Companies Act.
There may be only one Chief Executive for the organization who is responsible to make major decisions to run the business and he will be responsible for all the affairs of the organization or there may be number of Chief Executives, sharing the responsibilities of overall management. This type of multiple executives sharing the responsibility is suitable for large organizations. For example, Tata Locomotive, Tata Automobiles, H.M.T., Maruti Udyog limited etc.
(i) Organizations with One Chief Executive:
When one Chief Executive managers the organization, he is responsible for overall functioning of the organization. He has at his disposal all the services of all special staff such as Accounts staff, Engineers, Product design staff, Legal advisors etc.
(ii) Organizations with Multiple Chief Executives:
Sometimes in large organizations, functions of top management becomes overburden and difficult to manage by a single hand, then the activities are grouped as-
a. Management functions or division, and
b. Operation functions or divisions.
The Chief Executive Officer looks after Management Division and concentrates on managerial functions such as Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling. The Chief Operation Executive looks after Operating functions.
In very large organizations, when work load increases to an extent that Chief Executive and Chief Operating Executive are not able to cope up with the load, a third officer known as Chief Staff Officer is also appointed and assigned the staff department work. Thus, the Chief executive’s work is divided into three functions – Chief Executive, Chief Operating Officer and Chief Staff Officer.
Middle Level managers are in between Top level management and Supervisory level management. The number of middle level managers depends on the size of and activities of the organization. The Middle level managers have to work to the orders of the top level management and at the same time to get the work done by lower level managers who pose certain problems. That is these middle level managers have to work between the pressures of Top level and lower level managers. At the same time they have to pressure and resistance in their own class.
To be clear:
(i) Top level management forces the middle level managers to act in accordance with policies, directions to fulfill the predetermined goals.
(ii) Lower level management pressure over middle level management for accepting and accommodating its deals and views. Sometimes raises unnecessary problems if the work is of technical nature.
(iii) Middle level managers among themselves have differences and may not co-operate in getting things done or cause unnecessary delays because of ego and differences. This may cause unnecessary problems in smooth running of the organizational affairs.
The functions of middle level managers can be listed as:
(i) Co-operation among middle level management itself and also with top management and supervisory class to have smooth functioning of organizational affairs.
(ii) Performance of functions allocated to them effectively so that top management will get the required information in time to take favourable decisions and lower level managers get the instructions in time to do their work.
(iii) Effective control of resources to have optimal production plan.
(iv) To see that effective training and development of manpower to meet the required standards and if necessary arrange placement for new workforce.
To create an atmosphere in the organization which will motivate the workers to subordinate their personal goals and work for fulfilling the organizational goals without any resistance.
Generally supervisory management is above the operational level, which is workforce at the bottom level of the organization and below the middle level management.
Depending on the size and operation of the organization, this level management is sometimes classified as:
(i) Senior Supervisor,
(ii) Intermediate level Supervisor, and
(iii) Front line Supervisor.
These supervisors are directly related to works and directly responsible for the work done by the operational level managers i.e. workers. In getting the work done by the workforce, he performs all the functions of management i.e., planning the work, materials and workforce required, organizes, directing and controlling.
The supervisor has the following managerial roles:
(a) Scientific Management Role:
Here the supervisory role relates to a role of technician and a researcher.
As a technician, he must have through knowledge of the work done in the organization. Specially, when the work is done in machine tools, he must be in a position to give instructions to the workers regarding the tools to be used, speed of cutting and feed of cutting to get the right finish to the job. This work is of purely technical in nature.
Researcher in sense that he must be able to find new ways of doing work to have optimal production plan and workers feel ease at workstation.
(b) Human Relations Role:
This is particularly important, because, the supervisor is directly in contact with workforce, who thinks that they are a separate class whom the management will exploit. The supervisors serve as a negotiator, and tactically deal with the workers in communicating the higher level management policies, plan and negotiate effectively with working class to get the things done effectively. In this sense, he serves the role of human relations expert.
A supervisor is required to have skill of counseling the workers in case of solving graveness regarding the work and see that the workers do not lose patience and compromise with the advice of the supervisor. In this sense, he performs the role of a Councilor.
Another role he has to perform is he must motivate the workers and encourage them to do their work effectively. In this sense, he is a motivator.
He has to do the work of a trainer as far as job training is concerned. This is necessary because the workers perform their work effectively. Sometimes for Kim training is an uphill task when the workers are unskilled. In this sense, he performs the role of Trainer.
Management is a term variously defined by different authors. For this reason, below we first present some of its definition to be able to export them from links.
Thus, Donnelly, Gibson and Ivancevich Management define it as, “the process as it is made by one or more persons, and consists in coordinating the activities of other persons in order to achieve the results that one person could not achieve alone.”
Weihrich and Koontz, in addition, define it as, “the process of shaping and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently achieve desired outcomes.”
James A. O’Brien Management function describes as a leadership process that involves managerial functions of planning, organizing, directing and controlling. In doing so, managers plan organizational activities, organize the staff and activities, direct and control their own management activities by using feedback loops. Feedback has a duty to point out the discrepancies and to direct towards the implementation of necessary modifications in order to achieve business goals.
Also the definition of management can be quoted with definition in the lexicon of Economics, where was stated “activity aimed at achieving specific, pre-set goals, but with the efforts of other people. Management is the process of guiding the behaviour of others toward the execution of a task. It combines the factors of production to achieve certain goals and deals with “overcoming complexity”. Basic functions of management scope are: planning, organizing, setting up staff, leadership, and control.”
Looking at these definitions as the basic scope of management functions (and others not listed here), it can be noticed that all emphasize that the scope of management is a process in which individuals are joining forces with the aim of achieving a more efficient target. This goal can be expressed quantitatively (profit contribution of cover, income) and qualitatively (environmentally friendly production, high product quality, employee care, good post-sales service of products).
In general, these goals are overlapping, so a high-quality product delivers a positive image of a business entity, and that indirectly brings higher profits due to higher sales. To accomplish the desired goals, that persons (hereinafter to be called managers) are responsible for managing and performing certain functions, as already stated in the definition of the lexicon of Economics.
Any organization will have number of functional departments depending on the activities of the organization. For example, departments like: Marketing, Finance, Personnel, and Production etc. Managers of these departments have to work in coordination to fulfill the organizational goals.
Let us briefly discuss the role of the managers of various departments:
(i) Marketing Manager:
Marketing manager works to find the market or develop the market for the products or services of the organization. He will have direct contact with organization’s marketing chain. Sometimes he helps in developing new product.
(ii) Financial Manager:
He deals with organization’s financial resources and his department is responsible accounting, cash management and sometimes banking and insurance too.
(iii) Operations Manager:
Operations manager is responsible for production activities such as Production control, Inventory control, Quality control, Plant maintenance etc. He is also concerned with improving the productivity of the organization.
(iv) Human Resource Manager:
This manager is responsible with all matters concerned with workforce in the organization. That is Recruitment, Placement, Wage Payment, and Welfare of personnel in the organization. He is also responsible for training and development of the manpower of the organization.
(v) Administrative Manager:
These managers are sometimes called as general managers in an organization. They look after overall activities. They may be specialized in anyone field but with the help of the other managers they have to manage all the functions of the organization. For example, District Collector. He has to manage the affairs of the whole district with the help of departmental managers. So also the Principal of an Engineering College has to look after all the departments with the help of Heads of the Departments.
What are the Levels of Management – Top Level, Middle Level and Lower Level Management (With their Roles)
Management Team or Group Perspective:
Broadly speaking, an organisation has two important levels of management, namely functional and operative. Functional management deals with determining the goals/objectives, means to achieve them, coordination of resources, and so on. Whereas operative management deals with the implementation of what functional management determines.
From a management team/group perspective, management can be divided into three groups:
1. Top level management,
2. Middle level management and
3. Lower levels of management
1. Top Level Management:
They represent the functional level. Their primary roles are drafting the vision, mission, and strategy. They also decide on expansion and resource mobilisation. A few of them are usually shareholders in the business. The managing director, chief executive officer (CEO), executive director, and board member are some of the usual job nomenclature followed across organisations.
They wield enormous power and often affect the national economy by deciding to invest in one country versus another, deciding on policies of outsourcing, and so on.
2. Middle Level Management:
Those who fall into this group play a crucial role and actually run the organisations. They form the bridge between the top and lower management and have both functional and operational roles. They implement the strategy, head the functional areas such as operations, marketing, and human resources or may be country heads.
They give the crucial input to create business and corporate strategy. They have competencies to make clear recommendations on what will work and what will not work in an organisation because of their intimate knowledge of strategy and execution details.
Without them, the plans of the top management will come to a grinding halt because strategy implementation is in their hands. They play a significant role in managing change, macro level coordination, and administration.
Chief information officer, chief innovation officer, chief finance officer, chief marketing officer, chief people officer, country head, president and senior vice-president are some modern designations used for job roles in the middle management.
3. Lower Level Management:
These are operational managers who manage the day-to-day functions of the organisation. They execute the decisions taken by the middle management, evaluate performance, and provide various inputs for decision-making.
Roles of Top, Middle, and Lower Level Management:
i. Decide on vital matters for the survival, goals, profitability, and growth, e.g., introduction of new product, acquisitions. Plan, orchestrate and execute change.
ii. Decide on the structure of organisation and create positions.
iii. Exercise overall managerial control by reviewing reports. They distribute profits and coordinate various business units.
iv. Act as the link to the external world especially with stakeholders, formulate policies, and provide direction and leadership.
i. Make the departmental plans and activities within the basic framework of the corporate plan. Set departmental goals and ways to ways to achieve them.
ii. Take accountability for productivity and related issues of their departments and give detailed orders and instructions to coordinate the activities of various work units at lower level.
iii. Explain and interpret policy decisions made at the top level to lower-level managers.
i. Execute actions and are in personal contact with workers to ensure discipline and team work.
ii. Evaluate performance, daily targets, and related issues.
iii. Send reports and keep the information system going.
iv. Communicate problems and suggestions of workers to higher authorities.
v. Act as true team leaders and ensure the day-to-day organisational behaviour required for productivity.
What are the Levels of Management – 5 Important Levels: Top Level Management, Upper Middle Level, Middle Level, Foreman and Operational Force Level Management
(1) Top Management – Board of Directors, Managing Director, General Manager, Secretary.
(2) Upper Middle – Vice-President, Divisional Heads.
(3) Middle – Departmental Heads, Superintendents.
(4) Foremen – Supervisors – Sales field, Office, Factory.
(5) Operating Force – No powers, but manages themselves, their tasks, tools and work.
Each has right – to plan, to determine goals, to make internal policies, to lead, to organize, to control, to appraise results.
Each is reporting to higher Authorities-
Board of Directors – Top-most Management.
i. Top Managers – President, Vice-President, General Manager.
ii. Upper middle managers – Divisional Managers, Works Manager, Treasurer, Chief Accountant, Financial Controller.
iii. Lower-middle managers – Section Managers and Branch Managers.
iv. Supervisory Staff – Supervisors.
v. Operators – Workmen, Clerks, Salesmen, etc.
Functions of Top Management:
(1) Decision Making – Origination (Initiation), Confirmation, Regularization, Adoption (or reports etc.)
(2) Planning –
(i) Setting of goals – What, When, How much.
At what price, Where.
(ii) Mechanism –
(b) Organization and Co-ordination;
(c) Appointment of Key Personnel.
(3) Policy Making –
(i) Definition – General or Specific;
(4) Implementation – Release of authority;
Giving direction for execution.
(5) Financing –
(i) Collection of funds;
(ii) Distribution of profits;
(iii) Regulation of resources and reserves.
(6) Evaluation –
(i) Comparison of accomplishment with goals;
(ii) Comparison of accomplishment with cost;
(iii) Alternative possibilities based on feedback.
(7) Counselling – Mobilising the skills of everyone in the organization by enlightenment and exhortation.
(i) The Figure-head role – It describes the chief executive as symbol, required by the status of his office, to carry out a variety of ceremonial, social and legal duties. He must preside at formal dinners, greet visiting dignitaries, sign government forms and make himself available for important people that require his attention.
(ii) The role of leader in which the CEO has to hire, fire, train and motivate his subordinates.
(iii) The liason role requires the CEO to keep interpersonal relations with people outside the organization. For this purpose, he may attend conferences, take part in social life and develop a network of high status contacts.
(iv) The role of a monitor in which he continuously extracts and receives information about his organization. Much of the information is privileged. He receives every kind of information and he may keep it confidential.
(v) The disseminator role in which the CEO may share of the privileged information with his trusted lieutenants.
(vi) Spokesman role, in which the informs outsiders, to the extent necessary about the progress of and the problems about his organization.
(vii) The role of entrepreneur, in which CEO takes final responsibility for bringing about the authority in the organization; he initiates projects.
(viii) As disturbance handler, he looks for problems and tries to solve them.
(ix) As resource allocator, he decides who will get what in his organization. He schedules his own time according to his priorities. He designs his organization and allots the work. He delegates authority.
(x) As negotiator, the CEO enters in crucial negotiations with other authorities and takes really effective decisions.
The most significant feature of the above mentioned ten roles is that they are inseparable. They form a gestalt that is an integrated whole.
Of course, different CEOs may emphasize different roles.
Departmental managers at the second level of command may not be required to carry out all these ten roles. They may take up relevant roles and may concentrate on one particular set of role e.g., production manager will maintain work flow and will give more attention to the decision role. The sales manager will concentrate more in communication and will take the liaison role.
Middle manager has to largely maintain and manage relationships. He has to get the things done through others. He has to rely on the support, co-operation or approval of a large number of people.
He has to manage upward relationship as a subordinate by taking directives and orders. He manages downward relationship as supervisor by giving orders and communication.
Laterally he works as an equal with other managers by securing cooperation. In view of the conflicting and changing role which the middle manager is required to perform, it is difficult for him to arrive at a consistent pattern of behaviour.
He should, therefore,
(1) Make a network of relationship explicit;
(2) Identify in a specific situation – the triple set of requirements i.e., what is expected of him as a good subordinate, a good colleague and also as a good superior; and
(3) Recognize the difficulty of achieving consistent behaviour, communication his understanding of the job to the others in the organization.
i. Establishment of an organization;
ii. Selection of best suited executives;
iii. Designing of operating policies and routines;
iv. Actual assigning of specific duties to each department and to each individual;
v. Obtaining of funds and control of costs;
vi. Solution of problems of actual sales activities; and
vii. Distribution of finance, of production, labour relations, wages.
Middle management usually includes superintendents, Production Manager, General Foremen, Branch Managers etc.
Their functions are:
i. To work out the details of the organization, leaving the top officers free;
ii. To co-operate for smooth functional organization;
iii. To understand the interlocking of departments in major policies;
iv. To achieve co-ordination;
v. To build up a contented and efficient staff.
vi. To develop leaders for future by organizing training; and
vii. To build a company spirit-human relations.
Same as above but responsibilities are restricted to specific supervision of workmen; procurement of needed materials and tools from stock-room; planning; scheduling and assigning of work to each man; quality and safe operating conditions; control of all items of cost influenced by his unit; care of machines and equipment; making of reports and results; keeping records and statistics; administering incentives, maintaining adequate crew, controlling absenteeism, adjusting grievances, improving production methods, representing both the management and the workmen to each other.
More restricted responsibilities; definite operations to perform – to use properly materials, equipment, tools, instructions and standards, skills.
There is no sharp line of demarcation of functions.
The title supervisor means over-seer – literally it means a person who looks at things from above. The terms supervisor and foreman are often used interchangeably, although the supervisor is somewhat more frequently associated with office employment and the foreman with hourly rated production employees.
The supervisor himself, or the foreman, is the last rung, but not the least, in the managerial ladder. He works on the plant, represents labour to management and management to labour, and is the link connecting both parties socially. Consequently, he has to deal with difficulties of both. That is why he has been held as – ‘the marginal man’ the ‘man in the middle’, or a person placed ‘between the devil and the deep sea’. His position is one of the most critical and difficult in industry.
While the upper layers of management are fulfilling their functions through papers and written documents, the first line supervisor must carry out his duties by dealing mostly with men. Though he has an office, he spends less time in it than the rest of his managerial colleagues. His problems are usually human problems, which are the most difficult to solve; and his objectives, to extract work from men, are the hardest to achieve.
The supervisor’s functions, though clearly of a managerial nature, are more concerned with execution and control than those of any other role in the managerial hierarchy. While the workers expect from their supervisors to be treated as human beings, be helped in their work and be friended, the company requires from them to organize and maintain production, help their men and maintain discipline, instruct them, facilitate the performance of their duties, and interpret their behaviour to management.
The supervisor, in the words of Elton Mayo, as being a manager, shares in the three major functions of industry – technical, administrative, and human relations function. Besides these and the general managerial function, he is supposed to control the quantity, quality and cost of labour, improve working methods and be responsible for his actions before management and labour without any ‘buck passing’.
As regards his workers, he is better than anybody else in a position of leadership which he has to exercise mostly by developing among them the sense of motivation, fostering team spirit, and more particularly, training them in safely measures, handling grievances and the like.
The difficult task of keeping men together and making them work smoothly is largely in his hands. But this gigantic task is a tiny part of the greater tragedy with which contemporary society is confronted-the dealings of man with man. Yet, through all this, he should never forget that the ultimate aim and justification of his work is service to the consumer as representative of society for whom industry is finally meant. This important, though often forgotten, consideration will offer sound guidance in many of his difficulties and decisions.
Organization grows essentially out of the need for co-operation. Whenever more than one person have to perform an operation, simple or complex, with a definite end in view, they need a kind of co-ordination and adjustment of functions directed to the performance of that end. This is the essence of organization.
The term organization is derived from ‘organism’ which means a structure of body divided into parts that are held together by a fabric of relationship as one organic whole.
Organization is essentially System of Human Relationships:
(1) Organization always includes persons;
(2) These persons are interacting;
(3) These interactions can always be ordered or be described by some sort of structure;
(4) Each person has personal motives, some of which are the reasons for his actions;
(5) These interactions can also help achieve compatible joint objectives, related to personal objectives.
The organization structure describes these interactions, setting forth role, relationship, activities, hierarchies, objectives and other features of the organization. The structure and the particular process of interacting will vary from one organization to another.
Persons are the essential core elements in organization. Their interactions can have a sense of purpose. They work consciously towards their objectives. They may not be always conscious of these objectives but they are capable of being conscious of them. It is important for managers to recognise these personal objectives so that he can integrate these objectives with the organization objectives.
(1) Between individuals;
(2) Between individuals and the organization;
(3) Between groups and groups;
(4) Between groups and organizations;
(5) Between organizations and other organizations;
(6) Between organizations and the total environment;
(7) Between individuals and the outside environment.
Human and non-human resources are the working element of an organization. Resources have to be channeled or directed or managed by the manager. About human resources the manager has to see that they have ability to do, ability to influence and ability to use concepts. The first task of manager is to create ideas, then to plan, then to organize, to motivate, to communicate, to control and to analyze. In order to influence individual actions, the manager must know what the need is and how intense it is. He must also understand the socio-psychological environment in which the individual works.
It has been observed that in any organization it is likely that the individual and organizational objectives may be –
(i) Totally in opposite direction;
(ii) Practically opposing;
Organization is more than a chart. It is the mechanism through which management Directs, Co-ordinates and Controls the business. It is the foundation of management.
(1) It facilitates administration;
(2) It makes growth and diversification possible;
(3) It provides for the optimum use of technological improvements;
(4) It encourages use of human beings;
(5) It stimulates creativity and initiative through well-defined areas of work;
(6) It provides for planning, motivation, co-ordination and control;
(7) It provides for advice by staff people;
(8) It provides for supply of systematic information;
(9) It avoids over-loading, over-lapping and un-related grouping;
(10) The top management is free from routine matters and operating details.
What are the Levels of Management – Top Level Management, Middle Level Management and Lower Level Management (With Functions)
The word ‘management’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Manus’ which means hands. Thus, management refers to handling a particular activity. Management refers to the process of setting certain pre-determined objectives and achieving them through optimum utilization of resources. Management is applicable everywhere i.e., it is required in every organization.
However, the levels of management depend on the size of the organization. There may be a small scale, medium scale or a large scale organization. Management of a small scale organization is simpler as compared to a large scale organization. In big organizations, there are a large number of employees. Management is therefore divided into different levels. Generally, there are three levels of management.
They are as follows:
Top Level management is the ultimate authority in an organization. They are the head of an organization. Top Level management comprises of the Board of Directors, Managing Directors, Chief Executive Officers etc. They frame the policies, set the targets, direct and control the middle level management and achieve the objectives of the organization.
a. Top level management sets the objectives of the organization.
b. It frames the plans and policies to attain the objectives.
c. It keeps a check on the proper implementation of the policies.
d. It creates several positions to perform different activities.
f. It evaluates and constantly monitors the tasks performed by each department.
ii. Middle Level Management:
In large organizations, there are various departments like purchase, sales, marketing, production, finance, human resources etc. The heads of these departments form the middle level management. They work between the top and the lower level management. They are responsible for the execution of the plans and implementation of the policies framed by the top level management.
a. Middle level management acts as a link between the top and lower level management.
b. It understands the policies framed by the top level management.
c. It frames the individual plan of action for each department to meet their respective targets.
d. It recruits the lower level management and subordinate level staff and assigns the respective duties to them.
e. It trains the lower level management and staff for performing the tasks of the organization.
f. It delegates the tasks to the lower level management.
g. It helps the top level management by co-coordinating the work of various departments.
The people belonging to the lower level management are the ones who are working under the middle level management. This level is also known as Operational or Supervisory Level of Management. It includes the supervisors, foreman, superintendents and other junior executives. They perform the tasks assigned by the middle level management.
a. Lower level management performs the tasks assigned by the middle level management as per the directions.
b. It assigns and delegates work to the subordinates.
c. It gives instructions and directions to the subordinates to complete the tasks.
d. It guides the subordinates as and when required.
e. It is responsible for the maintenance of the plant and machinery, equipments, tools etc.
f. It solves the problems and settles the disputes of the subordinates.
g. It conducts quality check of the product or service on a regular basis.