Everything you need to know about the features and characteristics of management. To understand the nature of management, it is essential to know the features or characteristics of management.
As rightly explained by Peter Drucker, “Without Institution there is no management. But without Management there is no Institution,” it is clear that Management becomes the specific organ of performance and survival of the institutions.
Some of the features of management are:-
1. Art as well as Science 2. Management is Goal Oriented 3. Management is a Continuous Process 4. Organised Activities 5. Management is a Factor of Production 6. Management as a System of Activity 7. Management is a Discipline 8. Management is a Purposeful Activity
9. Management is a Distinct Entity 10. Management Aims at Maximising Profit 11. Decision-Making 12. Management is a Profession 13. Universal Application 14. Management is Getting Thing Done 15. Management as a Class or a Team 16. Management as a Career 17. Dynamic and a Few Others.
Learn about the Features and Characteristics of Management
Features of Management – Art as well as Science, Management is an Activity, Management is a Continuous Process, Organised Activities, Decision-Making and a Few Others
Feature # 1. Art as well as Science:
Management is both an art and a science. It is an art in the sense of possessing of managing skill by a person. In another sense, management is the science because of developing certain principles or laws which are applicable in a place where a group of activities are co-ordinated.
Feature # 2. Management is an Activity:
Management is the process of activity relating to the effective utilisation of available resources for production. The term ‘resources’ includes men, money, materials and machine in the organisation.
Feature # 3. Management is a Continuous Process:
The process of management mainly consists of planning, organising, directing and controlling the resources. The resources (men and money) of an organisation should be used to the best advantages of the organisation and the objectives to be achieved. The management function of any one alone cannot produce any results in the absence of any other basic functions of Management. So, management is a continuous process.
Feature # 4. Management Achieving Pre-Determined Objectives:
The objectives of an organisation are clearly laid down. Every managerial activity results in the achievement of objectives fixed well in advance.
Feature # 5. Organised Activities:
Management is a group of organised activities. A group is formed not only in a public limited company but also in an ordinary club. All the organisations have their own objectives. These objectives will be achieved only by a group of persons. These persons’ activities should be organised in a systematic way to achieve the objectives. The objectives cannot be achieved without any organised activities.
Feature # 6. Management is a Factor of Production:
The factor of production includes land, labour, capital and entrepreneurs. Here, land refers to a place where production is carried on. Labour refers to the paid employees of the organisation who are working in different levels as – skilled, unskilled, semi-skilled, manager, supervisor and the like. Capital refers to the working capital as in the form of cash, raw materials and finished goods and fixed capital as in the form of plant facilities and production facilities. These land, labour and capital could not realise the organisation’s goals.
The organisation goals are achieved only when these are effectively co-ordinated by the entrepreneur. An individual can do such type of job as in the case of small businesses. In the case of big sized business units, co-ordination job is done by the management. So, management is also treated as one of the factors of production.
According to Peter F. Drucker, “Whatever rapid economic and social development took place after World War II, it occurred as a result of systematic and purposeful work of developing managers and management. Development is a matter of human energies rather than of economic wealth and the generation of human energies is the task of management. Management is the mover and development is a consequence”.
Feature # 7. Management as a System of Activity:
A system may be defined as a set of component parts working as a whole. Authority may be defined as a right to command others for getting a particular course of organisational work done.
Individuals are the foundation stones of the management. An individual has some goals as a member of the organisation. There may be a conflict between his own goals and the management’s expectations from that individual. Such conflict is resolved by the management by ensuring balance between individual goals and organisational expectations.
Authority is vested with many persons to take decisions and influence the behaviour of the sub-ordinates. The very purpose of using the authority is to check and control the behaviour of the sub-ordinates. The sources of authority rest with superiors as given in the organisation chart and social norms. The utilisation of authority is based on the personality factors of the user and the behaviour of a person over whom it is used.
Feature # 8. Management is a Discipline:
The boundaries of management are not exact as those of any other physical sciences. It may be increased by the continuous discovery of many more aspects of business enterprise. So, the management status as a discipline is also increased in the same manner.
Feature # 9. Management is a Purposeful Activity:
Management is concerned with achievement of objectives of an organisation. These objectives are achieved through the functions of planning, organising, staffing, directing, controlling and decision-making. The organisational objectives are clearly defined and explained to every employee.
Feature # 10. Management is a Distinct Entity:
Management is distinct from its functional activities. The functions have the nature of “to do” but the management has the nature of “how to get things done”. A manager requires some amount of skill and knowledge to get work done.
Feature # 11. Management Aims at Maximising Profit:
The available resources are properly utilised to get desired results. The results should be the maximising profit or increasing profit by the economic function of a manager.
Feature # 12. Decision-Making:
There are a number of decisions taken by the management every day. Decision making arises only when there is availability of alternative courses of action. If there is only one course of action, need for decision-making does not arise. The quality of decision taken by the manager determines the organisations’ performance. The success or failure of an organisation depends upon the degree of right decision taken by the manager.
Feature # 13. Management is a Profession:
Management is a profession because it possesses the qualities of a profession. A fund of knowledge is imparted and transferred in this profession and the same is followed by management. The established principles of management are applied in practice.
Feature # 14. Universal Application:
The principles and practices of management are applicable not to any particular industry alone but applicable to every type of industry. The practice of management is different from one organisation to another according to their nature.
Feature # 15. Management is Getting Thing Done:
A manager does not actually perform the work but he gets things done by others. According to Knootz and O’Donnel, “management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organised groups.”
Feature # 16. Management as a Class or a Team:
A class may be defined as a group of people having homogenous characteristics to achieve common objectives. Engineers and doctors are grouped as a class in a society. Each and every doctor has the same objectives in life. Just like engineers and doctors, the management people have got similar aspirations to achieve corporate objectives.
Feature # 17. Management as a Career:
Now-a-days, management is developed as a career focused on certain specialisation. Financial Management, Cash Management, Portfolio Management, Marketing Management, Personnel Management, Industrial Management and Business Management are some of the specialisations of management. Specialists are appointed in the key posts of top management.
Feature # 18. Direction and Control:
A manager can direct his sub-ordinates in the performance of a work and control them whenever necessary. If the available resources are not utilised properly by him, he fails to achieve the corporate objectives in the absence of direction and control. Generally, the direction and control deals with the activities of human effort.
Feature # 19. Dynamic:
The management is not static. In the fast developing business world, new techniques are developed and adopted by the management. Management is changed according to the social change. The social change is the result of the changing business world.
Feature # 20. Management is Needed at All Levels:
The functions of management are common to all levels of organisation. The top executives perform the functions of planning, organising, directing, controlling and decision making. The same functions are also performed by the lower level supervisor.
Feature # 21. Leadership Quality:
Leadership quality is developed in the persons who are working in the top level management. According to R.C. Davis, “Management is the function of executive leadership everywhere.”
Features of Management – 9 Salient Features of Management: Management is Goal Oriented, Management is Universal, Management is Intangible and a Few Others
The salient features of management are as follows:
1. Management is Goal Oriented:
Achievement of specific objectives is very important feature of the management. It is a means towards the accomplishment of pre – determined goals and objectives. Without goals management has no justification to exist. Each and every activity of management is goal oriented. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the pre – determined goals are achieved.
2. Management is Universal:
Management is required in each and every form of the organisation. It is practiced in Family, Club, Government, and Army and business organisation. The fundamental principles of management are applicable in all areas of organisation. Managers perform the same basic functions at all levels. Thus management is universal which is found at everywhere in the organisation.
3. Management is a Continuous Process:
Management is not a onetime activity but it takes place continuously in the organisation. There is the requirement of continuous effort to achieve the organizational goals; therefore, management is a continuous process.
4. Management is Intangible:
Management cannot be visible or it cannot be felt in real sense. Only the result of management can be observed by comparing a well-managed organisation with a poorly managed organisation.
5. Management is a Social Process:
Management is known as a social process due to the presence of the interpersonal relations. Human factor is the most important factor in management because; it is governed by social values, culture and beliefs. It is a function that not only transforms the society but also preserves the society and promotes its interest in future.
6. Management is Multidisciplinary:
Management concerns with human behavior under dynamic conditions. The knowledge and skill required for management is derive from the several disciplines like Sociology, Psychology, Engineering, Economics, Anthropology, Mathematics etc. Therefore, management is called a multidisciplinary experience.
7. Management is Situational:
There are so many ways of doing things and which way will be suitable, it depends upon situation. Sometimes it happens that management is not using the best way of doing things due to the situation. The situational differences must be taken into account by successful managers.
8. Management is a Group Effort:
The individual efforts are coordinated into the team. A single person cannot undertake the management. All the managerial activities like goal setting, making plans and policies, implementation and controlling are the coordinated effort of a group of people that envisions future of the organisation.
The direction and control of the activities of people to attain pre-determined objectives are concerned with the management. Management is also known as a technique by which the objectives of a human group are determined, clarified and accomplished.
Features of Management – With Examples
Feature # 1. Management is a Goal-Oriented Process:
Effective management aims to unite efforts of all individuals to achieve organisational goals. Therefore, it is important that each organisation must have simple, clearly stated and achievable goals.
Example – Every business organisation has an aim to earn maximum profits. To achieve this, the management should conduct market research to find out demand for their product and plan the production accordingly. The production manager must target to produce goods at minimum cost, whereas a sales manager must sell goods with a goal to increase the market share.
Feature # 2. Management is all Pervasive:
Management being pervasive means it is felt everywhere and is followed by one and all. Each and every organisation, be it business or non-business, requires managing of financial and non-financial activities of the enterprise however the manner in which the activities are managed may differ from enterprise to enterprise and country to country due to differences in culture, tradition and history.
Example – A housewife manages her family, a teacher manages his/her class, a principal manages his/her school, a CEO manages his/her business organisation, and a Prime Minister manages his /her country. Therefore, management is widespread, required everywhere and for each activity.
Feature # 3. Management is Multi-Dimensional:
Management is not specific to a task or an activity. Management includes managing work, people and operations of an enterprise so that the organisation achieves its goals. With the help of management, an enterprise plans the process of getting work done, organises the means to transform inputs into desired output for consumption and controls the people performing the task.
It includes taking decisions, solving problems, dealing with employees as individuals and as a group to make their strengths effective and weaknesses irrelevant. Thus, management has various dimensions and tasks to perform.
Example – Director of M/s Stayfit For Ever, Mr. Ramkiran has the overall responsibility of placing orders, meeting customers’ demand, guiding the sales team to achieve their targets, maintaining work culture in the organisation etc. Thus, he is managing business at various dimensions using diverse strategies.
Feature # 4. Management is a Continuous Process:
Management is an ongoing and never-ending process. Each activity for its effective completion needs to be managed until its completion. All managers constantly and simultaneously perform all functions of management i.e., planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling but of course, the degree of importance for each function may differ from time to time.
i. A sales manager may spend more time planning and staffing during the launch of a new product but at the same time, he does organise his current orders, direct his sales team and solve customers’ problems. On the other hand, while doing routine business he may spend more time on directing and controlling his sales team as compared to planning.
ii. The farewell party you organised required management right from the day the date of the party was announced until the day it was actually hosted. Each and every activity had to be managed from the start to finish. Initially it must have involved more of planning and organising but later on it must have involved more of coordinating and controlling.
Feature # 5. Management is a Group Activity:
An organisation achieves its goals with the help of diverse individuals working as a group. To make sure that each individual works towards the common goal it is a must to see that they work as a team and all individual efforts are well coordinated. Effective management provides opportunities to individuals to grow and fulfill their aspirations and as a result is able to get the best out of each individual.
i. A sales manager of an enterprise is assisted by sales executives to achieve the sales targets set by the company owners. The sales manager manages all the executives as a team and at the same time, he manages each executive to strengthen his/her selling skills.
ii. The farewell party required you to manage and coordinate not only the heads of each team but also everyone involved as an individual or as part of a team.
Feature # 6. Management is a Dynamic Function:
In order to be successful each enterprise has to positively respond to the changes in the external and internal environment, which may be due to social, economic or political factors. Thus, the management cannot follow traditional techniques; instead it adapts to the changes and prepares strategies to achieve the best in the given circumstances.
Example – A Korean company sells its products to various countries. It cannot follow the same price for each country due to difference in demands and expectations. Thus, they always have different plans for different countries to promote sales. Sometimes they formulate different strategies to meet the changing demands of the same country.
Feature # 7. Management is an Intangible Force:
Management can be felt and experienced but not seen. If a company enables its employees to meet their targets, keeps its stakeholders satisfied and eventually achieve its goals effectively, it is said to be efficiently managed. Thus, the effect of management is noticeable from the manner in which an enterprise functions.
i. Rama Enterprises is running into losses from last two years. It has lost most of its important customers to its competitors mainly because of the indifferent attitude of its employees. Employees do not come to office on time, take leave without giving any notice. No action is taken against employees because the boss Mr. Rohit Kumar himself comes late to office. Thus, there is too much chaos and indiscipline in the office. The ill management of business is easily noticeable.
ii. Mr. Mahajan, the owner of SVG Textiles always reaches his office much before his employees and holds meetings with all department heads regularly. It is the office policy that customer’s orders or complaints must be handled within two working days. He periodically analyses employees’ performances as individuals and as a team to make sure that business achieves its targets. The company has achieved 150% growth as compared to last year only because of effective and efficient management.
Features of Management – 10 Important Features of Management
The following describe the nature and features of management:
1. Management is a Social Process:
Social process refers to the series of activities that are performed in the Society. These activities are carried out by administrators, politicians, economists, housewives, parents, doctors, lawyers and so on. Management is an integral part of social process. Management helps everyone to carry out the activities in the society effectively.
To refer to an institution which is very well run, it is said that, the management of this institution is said to be very good. Here management is viewed as a function. In other words, management is a process of certain managerial functions in every organisation. It is a social process in particular because managers, at all levels, work with and through people.
2. Management also denotes a ‘Body of People’ Involved in Decision-Making:
When an institution is very well run, it is said that the management of that institution takes personal interest in the institution. Here, management denotes a body of people involved in decision-making.
3. Management is Omnipresent and Universal Successful Organisations:
Show that management principles apply to every kind of organisation and also to every level in it. Hence, it is called omnipresent and universal.
4. It is an Inexact Science:
Management principles are not like those in science or maths where things are fairly clear or exact. Hence, they cannot be generalised precisely.
5. It is Complex:
Management functions are complex. They call for a fairly professional approach to manage a given situation or organisation.
6. Management is Situational in Nature:
The same style of management cannot work for the same situation every time. The change in the situation may call for a change in the style of functioning of the manager. Similarly, at different points of time also, the style of functioning can be different.
7. Management is an Art and also a Science:
There is considerable discussion on whether management is an art or science. An art is personal skill or deftful handling of business affairs. Art is characterised by practical knowledge, personal creativity, and skill. The more one practices an art, the more professional one becomes.
Management can be considered as an art because it satisfies all these criteria of an art. The management skills are highly individual-oriented and can be sharpened with more training and practice. There is a lot of scope to apply creativity in the context of managing the affairs of a business organisation. Thus, management is an art.
A science is a systematised body of knowledge of facts. It can establish cause-and-effect relationships among various factors. It involves basic principles, which are capable of universal application. It also helps to predict the future events. Management satisfies all these criteria to be considered as a ‘science’.
It is a systematic body of knowledge, its principles are universally acceptable, and it stands for logical reasoning, scientific testing and inquiry. It also establishes cause-and-effect relationship between the given factors. It explains what happens if the employees are not paid salaries on time.
Thus, science and art are not mutually exclusive but are complementary to each other. Science and art are two sides of the same coin. Those who learn management principles and contemporary practices in an organised way will have a far better opportunity to design a feasible solution to a given managerial problem.
Mere knowledge of science will not assure results because one must know how to apply them. Here comes the role of art or skill. Hence, management is considered more as both an art and a science.
8. Management is a Profession:
Profession refers to a vocation or a branch of advanced learning such as engineering or medicine. Management helps to carry out every profession in a scientific manner. The managers are professional in their approach and are governed by code of ethics. If the manager violates the code of conduct, he can be dismissed from the organisation.
9. Management is Inter-Disciplinary:
The subject of management is heavily dependent on other disciplines, and the techniques of management are built around the techniques drawn from these subjects. The manager uses extensively for instance, the theories of consumption and production from Economics; linear programming, PERT and CPM from Operations Research; probability theories, correlation and regression techniques from Statistics; theories of group behaviour from Sociology; theories of individual behaviour from Psychology, the tools of decision-making such as matrices, calculus, integration, and differentiation from Mathematics.
10. Manager has Four Types of Resources – the Four M’s:
Men, money, materials, and machines are the four types of resources the manager has to manage. However, this list is only inclusive.
Features of Management – 23 Unique Features of Management: Management is an Activity, Management is a Social Process, Management is a Science and a Few Others
Following are the unique features of management:
Feature # 1. Management is an Activity:
Management is an activity which is concerned with the efficient use of human and non-human resources of production. It is the driving force that inspires an undertakings knit it into an entity and create the conditions and relationship which bring about full use of its power and resources.
Feature # 2. Management is a Purposeful Activity:
Management deals with the achievement of some clearly defined objectives. The purpose of manufacturing enterprise is to profitably manufacture products for satisfying the consumers. For this purpose, management organises plans, directs and controls and enterprise. There may be certain other goals also. Managerial success is commonly considered by the extent to which these objectives are achieved.
Feature # 3. Management is a Social Process:
All business organisations are social organisations as they are constituted of men. The management has to control, organise and motivate them. It can improve their lives and create a favourable climate for their development. Because of these social organisations, which produce variety of products, the standard of living of society is concerned.
Feature # 4. Management is a Science:
Now-a-days the science of management is universally accepted as a wide and distinct discipline. It has assumed professional character. That is why managerial effectiveness requires the use of certain knowledge, skill and practice. There are certain fundamental concepts, theories, tools and techniques which constitute the subject matter of this social science.
They are communicable hence being taught to would-be managers in the schools of management. There are definite principles of management. It is a science because by the application of these principles predetermined objectives can be achieved.
Management is also a social science. It is supposed to be the Behavioural science of in exact nature. Its principles and theories are situation bound despite the fact that a large number of theories and principles of management that have been established their applicability may not necessarily lead to the same result. The process of management is very much related with the behaviour of people at work and their behaviour cannot be predicted in exact manner.
So the limitations of social sciences are there with science of management. But with the introduction of quantitative tools in the field of decision-making, management is growing as science. It has an organised body of knowledge having its own nature. It can be communicated to new-comers also through formal training. To conclude we can say that management is a social science having its own approach and dynamics in different work situations.
Feature # 5. Management is an Art:
Management is an art of getting things done through people. Managers must possess this art. Artistically, managers get the things done through people. Art is the best way of doing things. Art is concerned with the exercise of the know-how for the effective accomplishment of desired results. As a matter of fact the process of managing is a fine art, as it is concerned with the application of the principles, keeping in view the real life situations.
The same process is followed in a repetitive manner and the practice is moulded according to the experiences after applying the set body of knowledge. Design and redesign of systems continue until the managers find a proper solution and desire results. So the art management is also creative. It develops new situations new designs and new systems needed for further improvement.
But there is not, one best way of managing. Every manager has his individual approach and technique in solving problems. One of the scholars has very aptly said that ‘business’ is the oldest of the arts and youngest of the sciences.
Feature # 6. Management is Associated with Effort of a Group:
Management is the management of people and not the direction of things. Business activities are group activities. Management is a directive activity aiming at the effectiveness of collective human effort. A good management inspires them and increases their willingness to work.
Feature # 7. Management is Getting the Things Done:
A manager does not do any operating work himself. He gets the work done by, with and through the people. He has to direct them and develop their talent by adopting technical, human and psychology skills.
Feature # 8. Management is an Intangible Force:
Management is not an abstract thing. It is a social which cannot be seen with the eyes but it is evidence by the quality and level of the organisation.
Feature # 9. Management is to Achieve the Predetermined Objectives of the Organisation:
Whatever objectives are determined by the business organisation they are achieved by the management only. Every managerial activity has certain objectives, which should be expressible in spoken words or in writing or implied. These objectives, if determined by administration without the positive help of the management, cannot be achieved at all.
Feature # 10. Management is an Integrating Process:
Management is an integrating process in the sense, it integrates the men, machine and material to carry out the operations of the enterprise. This integration process is result oriented.
Feature # 11. Management Aims at Maximisation of Profits:
Management is meant for optimum utilisation of human and non-human resources which ultimately results in maximisation of profits to the organisation. It is the expectation of the owners from management, to bring desired results for the organisation. Rational utilisation of available resources to maximise the profit is the economic function of management.
Feature # 12. Management is a Must for Group Activity:
When the activities are carried out by an individual, himself it is not that difficult to manage them. But whenever the activities are carried on by a group of individuals, management is a must for carrying on the activities.
Without management, group activities may not be started at a right time and finished at the right time, Management plans, organises, co-ordinates, directs and controls the group efforts, for achieving the enterprise goals. Management is always concerned with the group efforts and not individual efforts.
Feature # 13. Management is Separated from Ownership:
It is one of the important features of the joint stock company, that management is separated from ownership. This only means that owners and managers are not the same persons. Owners are not managers and managers are not owners. In modern times there is a separation of management from ownership.
Today’s big corporations are owned by a vast number of shareholders scattered throughout the world, while their management is in the hands of qualified and competent managers who normally do not possess ownership interest in the enterprise.
Feature # 14. Management is a Universal Activity:
Managing involves getting things done through and with the people. Management means getting things done skilfully from others. Managers perform the same functions regardless of their place in the organisation structure or the type of enterprise in which they are engaged. The techniques and tools of management are universally applicable.
Feature # 15. Management is a Profession:
In modern days management is a profession like other recognised professions. Even management, is based on certain principles and theories, and their application in practice is becoming a must.
Feature # 16. Management has a Separate Identity:
Management is an art and science of getting things done through and with people. Yet their identity as thinkers is quite different from the identity of the doers. Administrators and managers are doers or executors. As an executors they are having a separate identity.
Feature # 17. Dynamic Principle of Management:
Management changes according to the changes arising within and out of organisation. Management is an adjustable element. It, not only, adopts itself according to social changes, but also introduces innovation in techniques of getting things done.
Feature # 18. Management-Need of Organisation:
Managements achieves the predetermined objectives of the organisation with the help of organisation. Organisation works as a tool for management for desired results.
Feature # 19. Management is Needed at Different Levels of Organisation:
According to the size and nature of business enterprise, either three or five levels of management are required. If the business enterprise is small only three or two levels of management are required e.g. top level. Middle level and Lower level of management. If the business enterprise is large enough then top level, upper top level, middle level, upper middle level and lower level of management may be required. It simply means that, management is essential at different levels of organisation.
Feature # 20. Management is also Characterised by the Quality of Leadership:
Every manager must possess the quality of leadership. A person who does not have quality of leadership cannot become a manager. According to R. C. Davis management is the function of executive leadership everywhere.
Feature # 21. Management is a System of Authority:
Management having special skills activates it for achieving the objectives of the organisation, making the organisation profitable, keeping the organisation going , its smooth running, making the organisation successful, getting the suitable type of people to execute the operations is the significant aspect of management. Perfection in this skill can be achieved only after practice, called as experience. There is a great demand for skilled and experienced managers.
Thus we see that management is so complex that our mind cannot catch all its specialties at the same moment. In nutshell, it is such a social and technical process that comprises a series of actions that leads to the accomplishment of objectives. It is such a function of an enterprise which concerns itself with the direction and control of the various activities to attain the business objectives.
It is the dynamic life giving element in every business, without its leadership the resources of the production remain mere resources and are never converted into production.
Feature # 22. Management Makes Things Happen:
Managers focus their attention and efforts in bringing about successful action. They know where to start, what to do to keep things moving and how to follow through. Successful managers have an urge for accomplishment. Management is acceptable because things are accomplished through them.
Feature # 23. Management is an Outstanding Means for Exerting Real Impact upon Human Life:
A manager can do much to improve the work environment, to stimulate people to do better things and to make favourable actions take place. Frustrations, and disappointment need not be accepted at face value and passively viewed as inevitable. A manager can achieve progress, can bring hope and can help the group members to achieve better things in life.
All the characteristics as mentioned above, certainly, help us in understanding the real meaning of the term Management.
Features of Management – 10 Basics Characteristics of Management
To understand the nature of management, it is essential to know the features or characteristics of management.
The basic characteristics of management are as follows:
Characteristics # 1. Management is Goal-Oriented:
The purpose of management is to achieve the goals of the organisation. For instance, management of a business aims at satisfaction of customers, earning of profits and increasing the goodwill and image of the business. There is no need of management if there are no pre-determined goals or objectives. The success of management is judged by the extent to which organisational goals are achieved. The basic purpose of management is to achieve maximum efficiency of the organisation.
Characteristics # 2. Management is a Continuous Process:
Management is a continuous process, i.e., its functions are repeated time and again. Management does not stop anywhere. It is an ongoing process of planning the activities and execution of plans through organising, staffing, directing and controlling.
Characteristics # 3. Management is a Coordinative Force:
The essence of management is the coordination or integration of human and other resources for effective performance. It brings together physical and financial resources and leads the human resources for the efficient use of non-human resources. All these resources are properly organised and divided into various work-units for the purpose of achieving greater coordination. Management acts as a catalytic agent in getting maximum productivity.
Characteristics # 4. Management is an Intangible Force:
Management has been called the unseen force. Its presence is evident by the results of its efforts—orderliness, informed employees, buoyant spirit and higher output. Thus, feeling of management is results are apparently known. People often comment on the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results although they cannot observe it during operation.
Characteristics # 5. Management is a Part of Group Effort:
Management is an integral part of any group activity. It is essential to undertake any organised activity. It involves the use of group efforts in the pursuit of well-defined goals or objectives. It cannot exist independent of the group or organisation it manages.
Characteristics # 6. Management Accomplishes Results through the Cooperation of Others:
The managers cannot do everything themselves. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. It is through motivation that managers can influence the behaviour of their subordinates.
Characteristics # 7. Management Balances Effectiveness and Efficiency:
Sound management requires that all organisational activities are performed effectively and efficiently. An organisation is said to be effective if it is able to accomplish its objectives. It will be termed as efficient if it is able to accomplish its objectives by making optimum use of resources.
For example, each of the two Product Managers of a company is given the target to produce 2000 refrigerators per month. Both attain their targets and so are effective. But the cost of production per refrigerator of the first Production Manager is Rs. 9,000 per set and that of the second is Rs. 9,800 per set. The first Production Manager will be termed both effective and efficient.
Characteristics # 8. Management is a Science as well as an Art:
Management has an organised body of knowledge consisting of distinct concepts, principles and techniques which have wide application. So it is treated as a science. The application of these concepts, principles and techniques requires specialised knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession, management is viewed as an art. The skills can be learnt through training and experience.
Characteristics # 9. Management is a Dynamic Discipline:
Management is a field of study which is taught in universities and management institutes. In fact, management is multidisciplinary in nature. It contains principles drawn from many social sciences like anthropology, psychology, sociology, etc. Much of management literature is the result of the association of these disciplines.
Characteristics # 10. Management is Pervasive or Universal:
Management is essential for effective performance of any organised activity. Thus, it is universal in nature. The principles and techniques of management have universal application. They can be applied to all types of organisations – business, social, educational and religious. However, the principles and techniques should not be applied blindly as they are not rigid laws. They should be modified to suit the given situation and the type of organisation.
Features of Management – Management is Goal Oriented, Management is Coordinative Force, Management is an Intangible Force and a Few Others
1. Management is Goal Oriented:
The main purpose of management is to achieve the goals of the organisation. For example – Management of a business is to achieve the goals of the organisation by satisfaction of customers, earning of profits and increasing the goodwill and image of business. The basic aim of management is to achieve maximum efficiency of the organisation.
2. Management is a Continuous Process:
The five functions of management- Planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling, works as a process. This function is repeated time and again and does not stop anywhere. It is an ongoing process of planning the activities and execution of plans by the other functions.
3. Management is Coordinative Force:
The coordination or integration of human and other resources for effective performance. It brings physical and financial resources together and leads the human resources for the efficient use of non-human resources. All these resources are properly organised and divided into various work-units for the purpose of achieving greater co-ordination. Management set as an effective tool in getting minimum productivity.
4. Management is an Intangible Force:
The intangible force refers to unseen force and management has been called as intangible force because its presence is evident by the results of its efforts. Thus, feeling of management is results are apparently known. It is basically the efforts of human resources and its proper utilization towards the achievement of goals of an organisation.
5. Management is the Part of Group Effort:
Each and every task accomplished by management is going to achieved by the group efforts. As management is an integral part of any activity. It involves the use of group efforts in the pursuit of well-defined goals or objectives. It cannot exist independent of the group or organisation it manages.
6. Management Balances Effectiveness and Efficiency:
Effective management requires that all the activities related to management are performed effectively and efficiently. An effective organisation is the one who is able to accomplish its objectives by making optimum use of resources. For example, it a target is given to the managers of a company to produce 2000 pairs of shoes per month.
Both attain their targets and are so effective. But the cost of production per shoe of the first production manager is Rs. 1000 per pair and that of the second is Rs. 1200 per pair. In this case, the first production manager will be termed as both effective and efficient.
7. Management is a Dynamic Discipline:
Now-a-days management is a field of study which is taught in universities and management institutes. So, it is also called as multi-disciplinary in nature. It contains principles drawn many social sciences like psychology, anthropology, sociology, etc. Management has become a very popular subject of study as is evident from the great rush for admissions into institutions and universities imparting education and training in management. Management offers a very fruitful and rewarding career.
8. Management is a Science as well as Art:
“Science is a body of systematised knowledge accumulated and accepted with reference to the understanding of general truths concerning a particular subject or object of study.” And management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of distinct concepts, principles and techniques which have wide application. So, it is treated as science.
The application of these concepts, principles and techniques requires specialized knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. Since the skills acquired by a manger are his personal possession, management is viewed as an art. The skills can be learnt through training and experience.
9. Management is Pervasive or Universal:
For an effective performance of an organized activity management is essential. Thus, it is universal in nature. The principles and techniques of management have universal application. They can be applied to all types organization—business, social, educational and religious.
But the principles and techniques should not be applied blindly as they are not rigid laws. And due to this, management principles and techniques should be modified to match the given situation and the type of organization. Thus it is pervasive.
10. Management Accomplishes Results through the Cooperation of Others:
Putting together a team is rather like designing a mini-organization to achieve the goal. Also managers cannot do everything themselves. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. It is through motivation that managers can influence the behaviour of their subordinates.
Features of Management – Management is as Old as Human Civilization, Management is a Universal Process, Management is Purposive, Goal-Oriented and a Few Others
Though management has been in practice ever since human beings realized the need and importance of working in groups, its development as a formal body of knowledge is of a recent origin. However, over the years, the theory and application of management techniques has transformed the very nature of management.
Management basically means coordination of human and material resources to accomplish organizational objectives. In essence, it is mental exercise, concerned with thinking, feeling, and intuiting.
Wherever there is human activity—individual or joint—there is management. Management of a family requires the family-head to identify objectives, assemble necessary resources to facilitate achievement of those objectives, supervise each family member’s performance and exercise control to check and correct any deviation from the planned path.
Almost the same functions have to be performed to manage the affairs of any collective enterprise. The basic characteristics of management remain the same whether the organization to be managed is a family, club, trade union, charitable or religious trust, municipality, a business entity, or the government. There may be variations in approach and style, but management activity is the same everywhere.
As Socrates put it, “Over whatever a man presides, he will be a good president if he knows what he needs and is able to provide it, whether he has the direction of a chorus, a family, a city or an army.”
On the face of it, the objectives sought to be accomplished are those of the organization, but these objectives are determined by the people who create the organization, and manage and control its affairs to accomplish them.
Based on the value-system and socio-cultural and educational background of the management, as also environmental constraints, organizational goals may be in the areas of (a) maximization of profit or minimization of loss; (b) achieving an awe-inspiring market standing; (c) improving worker productivity; (d) production of new products and services; (e) acquisition of physical and financial resources; (f) delivering superior managerial performance; and (g) discharge of community obligations and social responsibility. Pursuit of organizational objective requires management to control performance by human and material resources so as to ensure that it is good enough or that something is being done to improve it.
Achievement of these objectives necessitates setting of standards in every sphere of activity, measuring actual performance against those standards, decision-making on satisfactory level of performance, and taking appropriate action to correct deviations from the standards.
Management is only a word, an idea. It is non-existent. It is an abstract idea just as any institution, including government, is an abstraction. At all times, it is meant to make effective and efficient use of men, money, material, machines and methods. But while one can see and know the people occupying management positions at any point of time and also sit in judgment over their actions and behavior, including the results produced by them, one cannot feel the process of management itself.
However, the people in charge of management of an organization at any point of time are not an abstraction. They are real human beings, rather special kind of human beings, who possess the rare ability to lead and motivate their subordinates and use their visible and latent abilities for the good of the organization. In other words, they are catalysts who transform the human and material resources of an organization into a powerful engine that enables the accomplishment of organizational objectives.
Though management has emerged as an essential and distinct institution to integrate human and material resources of an organization, it did not receive concerted attention up to the end of nineteenth century. So it would be unreasonable to expect it to possess a well-developed body of theory and principles.
Moreover, over a relatively short period, several authors and management experts have made significant contribution to enrich the ‘theory and practice of management’ to position it as a ‘discipline’ in its own right.
However, since business management is practiced in the context of organizations of diverse characteristics and objectives, its theory has necessarily to be broad-based. Consequently, it has heavily drawn on theories and practices of several relevant disciplines, such as Sociology, Psychology, Anthropology, Economics, Political Science, Philosophy and Mathematics.
It is true that management does not draw on all these disciplines to the same degree, but it has liberally assimilated such areas of these disciplines which are relevant to the organizations to be managed. Thus, researches in various disciplines provide a theoretical base for understanding management. Experience gained in management practice also goes to modify or redefine management theory.
Practitioners of management were the first to formulate the principles of management based on their own experience. They made important contributions to the development of managerial theory and practice. People engaged in the works of other disciplines have also concentrated attention on the problems of organizations in society, and have contributed to development of management theory.
However, the principles of management are not rigid. They are flexible and liable to change with any significant change in the environment. For example, there was a time when management theorists believed that workers would work only when they were subject to the fear of wage- cuts or dismissal. However over the years researchers have found that treating workers with due consideration could also motivate them to put in greater effort.
The principles of management cannot be blindly applied to all situations. Every person or organization has certain features which may not be found in others. This may be due to time, place, socio-cultural factors, and so on. Thus, while applications of a particular principle in one situation may produce the desired result, in a different situation it may produce an altogether opposite outcome.
Features of Management – 11 Important Features of Management
(1) Management is a Distinct and Universal Process:
Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions of planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling. The process of management involves decision-making and putting them into action. These functions are performed by each manager. Every manager performs the same basic functions and these functions are basically same at all levels of organisation and in all types of institutions.
These basic principles of management are also universal in character. These apply in every situation or activity. These are equally applicable in different organisations. Management is pervasive.
(2) Management is a Continuous Process:
The cycle of management continues to operate so long as there is organized action for the achievement of group goals. Management is an ongoing process and is also a never-ending process. Because every activity starts with planning and if any deviation takes place in the on-going process, planning is sought again. Management is dynamic and the cycle continues.
(3) Management is a Multi-Disciplinary:
Management techniques, principles and theories are drawn from other disciplines such as engineering, anthropology, sociology and psychology. It depends upon wide knowledge and practices derived from various disciplines. Management as a field of study has grown; taking the help of so many other disciplines.
(4) Management is an Intangible Force:
Management is evidenced by the results of its efforts through others. Management is an unseen or invisible force. It cannot be seen, but its presence can be felt in the form of result, in every type of organisation. Manager arranges the human and other resources and uses these resources according to the priority of objective through their functions. The functions performed to achieve these objectives can be felt and unseen. Thus, feeling of management is result oriented.
(5) Management is Situational:
There is no best way of doing things. The application of knowledge is too realistic in order to attain results. A manager must have taken into account conditions and situations to solve a particular problem. A problem could be solved by keeping an eye on the situation. Management is situational or contingent.
(6) Management is Goal Oriented:
Management co-ordination is the efforts of human resource by employing other resources of the organisation to achieve the stated objective. Effort is directed towards the accomplishment of pre-determined goals. So, all activities of management are goal oriented.
The success of every activity of management is measured by the extent to which the organisational goals are achieved. Objectives or goals provide justification for the existence of an organisation.
(7) Management is an Interpretative Force:
The essence of management lies in the integration of human and other resources to achieve the stated objectives. Management integrates the efforts and coordinate efforts into a team. Management is a unifying force and it applies this integrative force to achieve the desired objectives of the organisation.
(8) Management is a System of Authority:
Management provides the direction of every activity of an organisation. Management forms a system of authority or a hierarchy of command to control the activities and give smooth direction. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. Management forms a chain of command and authority and is delegated to perform the task effectively.
(9) Management is a Science or an Art:
Management has a systematic body of knowledge as well as practical application of such knowledge. Management consists of well-defined concepts, principles and techniques which have wide application. So, it is treated as a science. The application of these concepts and practices requires a lot of skill and knowledge on the part of the manager. So, this is viewed as an art. Management is both a science and an art.
(10) Management is an Economic Resource:
Management is an important economic resource with land, labour and capital. Efficient management is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity as it is the force which assembles and integrates the resources of the organisation properly. Thus, management is an economic resource.
(11) Management is a Group and Social Phenomenon:
Management involves the use of group effort in the pursuit of common objectives. Group activity is found in all areas of human activity, and it is the integrative efforts of human beings that make possible for the organisation to achieve desired objectives. Management is done, by people through people and for the people.
It is a social process also because it is concerned with interpersonal relationships. It is the pervasiveness of the human element which gives management its special character as a social phenomenon.