Everything you need to know about types of training in HRM. Training is the systematic process of enhancing the job related skills, attitude and knowledge of personnel.

Training enables employees to develop and rise within the organisation, increase their market value. Basically, the top management is responsible for training of employees in the organisation.

The commitment of top management is an essential qualification of training programmes because it involves in framing training policy.

Training of the employees is possible if they believe that the resulting modification in the behaviour is in their own interest and they can perform their job in a better way after attending the particular training programme because learning is a self-activity and employee development is self-development.


The various types of training imparted to the employees in an organisation are as follows:-

1. Induction Training 2. Job Training 3. Crafts Training 4. Promotional Training 5. On-the-Job Training 6. Vestibule Training 7. Apprentice Training 8. External or Internal Training and 9. Refresher Training.

Types of Training in HRM: Induction Training, Job Training, Promotional Training and Refresher Training

Type of Training – 4 Popular Types: Induction Training, Job Training, Training for Promotion and Refresher Training

Training can be categorised as follows:

1. Induction Training


2. Job Training

3. Training for promotion, and

4. Refresher Training.

Type # 1. Induction Training:

Induction training new worker to be treated properly on his joining the organisation. He must be given essential introductory information by his superior. The new comer must be properly guided with elementary training about his conduct with superiors, co-workers, his responsibilities etc., and also about other general important aspects. This will help the worker adjust easily with new job and organisational environment.

Type # 2. Job Training:


This type of training is given for increasing the knowledge of employees to achieve skills for a specified job. Job training is imparted normally by senior workers, supervisors, or special instructors detailed by the management to impart OJT (On the Job Training).

Type # 3. Training for Promotion:

This training is provided to existing employees of the firm to prepare they perform higher level jobs. They may also be sent to institutions for acquiring specialised knowledge.

Type # 4. Refresher Training:

Since the advancement of technology, the technical staff should refresh their knowledge refresher training that is given to employees for short duration to coup up with the present job requirements. Employees may be encouraged to attend short courses seminars etc., to update their knowledge.

Types of Training – 5 Important Types: Induction Training, Job Training, Crafts Training, Promotional Training and Refresher Training

The various types of training imparted to the employees of the organisation are explained as under:

(i) Induction Training:

This is a training which is imparted to a new employee at the time when he or she joins the organisation. This training is imparted to them to build up their confidence in the organisation and to give them information about the various pro­cedures, rules and regulations. They are introduced to their work environment and the fellow employees in order to promote a feel­ing of belongingness and loyalty amongst them.

(ii) Job Training:

This given in different ways to make the workers proficient in handling various machines, equipment and materi­als so that their operations are smooth and fault less and acci­dents on the job can be avoided.

(iii) Crafts Training:

Such type of craftsmanship training involves preparation, for learning a specific craft thoroughly and become a competent craftsman. The extent and intensity of training var­ies from crafts to craft. Apprenticeship training is the major method adapted for such type of training.

(iv) Promotional Training:

The existing talented employees may be given adequate training to make them eligible for promotion to higher jobs in the organisation. The purpose of such training is to make the employees fit for undertaking higher job responsibili­ties.

(v) Refresher Training:

It is meant for the old employees of the en­terprise. Its purpose is to acquaint the existing workforce with the latest methods of performing their jobs and improve their efficiency further.

Types of Training – 2 Groups of Employee Training: Subject Matter View-Point and Sources of Train­ing View-Point

There are various methods of training but the methods can be divided broadly into two groups. The first group (subject-matter view-point) con­sists of induction training, job training and promo­tional training. The second group (sources of train­ing view-point) consists of on-the-job training, vestibule training, apprentice training and exter­nal or internship training.

1. Subject Matter View-Point:


I. Induction Training:

Induction is initial training or orientation of the employees. This training makes them famil­iar with the organisation and its policies. “To re­late the work of the recruit to that of the total or­ganisation” and to introduce him to his fellow workers, induction is necessary. All details of the work he will have to perform and also all details of the organisation are brought within his knowl­edge through induction.

Service condition, various amenities available, hours of work, goods pro­duced, techniques of productions and quality of the products – all these are made known to the new recruit during induction period. So, induction train­ing enables a new entrant to know the back­ground, present position of his organisation and it also creates in him interest in the organisation and fosters homely feeling through fellowship with other employees.


II. Job Training:

This training is imparted with a view to en­hancing the knowledge about the job to which an employee is attached. This involves training in each process and technique of production, handling of machines and equipment’s, best possible use of materials eliminating wastes, job training also covers training which enables a worker to avoid accidents and to remove bottleneck. A comprehen­sive job training aimed at familiarising the work­er with all aspects of his job makes him efficient and improves his skill for performing the job.

III. Promotional Training:

When employees are promoted from within the organisation they need training to shoulder re­sponsibilities of higher position. This is promo­tional training and many organisations provide for this training so that the promoters do not feel any difficulty in handling matters in the new posi­tions.

2. Sources of Train­ing View-Point:


I. On-the-Job Training:

As the name suggests, the training is on the job itself. A new employee is put on a machine or a specific job under the guidance of a supervisor or instructor. This method of training is common for all new employees. An experienced worker works along with the new entrant and he explains to him the nature of work, the use and handling of ma­chines and tools and how they are to be operated. The worker is expected to learn the whole process himself. This training method is not expensive and does not involve any separate or elaborate ar­rangement for the training of new employees.

However, this method has some limitations:

(a) Longer time is needed for learning the whole process.

(b) Fellow workers may not feel enthusias­tic to train the new colleague.

(c) Expert training may not be available because of the defective knowledge of the fellow workers who train the new one.


(d) There may be interference with the process of work and may cause a loss of time on the part of supervisors and other colleagues.

II. Vestibule Training:

Under this method, the new employee is trained in a separate training-centre within the plant itself. This type of training has been intro­duced with the object of avoiding the inconven­ience of on-the-job training. An experienced job in­structor imparts training. A natural working atmosphere is created as it prevails in the work­shop where production is being carried on.

Thus, the new employee is trained to learn the whole process. He thus overcomes the initial nervousness that overtakes him when he is put to learn on the job itself. Regular production of the workshops, in their method off training, is not interfered with. Emphasis is given more on instruction than work. The limitation of the training is that it is costlier.

[The word ‘vestibule’ refers to an entry cubicle through which one passes into rooms or an entry hall leading to a building.]

III. Apprentice Training:


This is the oldest form of training where it is intended to impart sufficient knowledge and skill of a craft to a young person with some technical background and take it as an apprentice. This ena­bles the trainee to gain complete proficiency in the craft. Under this method, the trainees are re­quired to gain not only actual work experience in the actual job but also to attend classroom lectures to have theoretical knowledge.

Schools are set up for such training by some organisations. As a condi­tion for employment, training is given under an agreement between the trainee and the prospec­tive employer and the apprentices are paid some remuneration during the apprentice period. In our country, in certain specified industries, appren­ticeship training has been made compulsory under the statute. The period of apprenticeship general­ly varies between two and three years.

This method of training combines practical ex­perience with theoretical lessons. After a consid­erably long period of training, the new incumbents find it easy to adjust themselves with their work environment, nor do they feel shy in their work. A sense of loyalty is developed during the period of training and also a rapport is established between the Governments and indirectly through the schemes of apprentice training as these are spon­sored by Government mostly.

Time factors of this method cannot be ignored. Compulsory apprentice­ship schemes put additional burden on the indus­try so far as cost is concerned. In practice, it is found that even after training, in many cases, in the absence of agreement, trainees are not absorbed in permanent employment and sometimes it so happens that the trainee himself leaves the or­ganisation and the training cost cannot be recov­ered. However, as a method of training, this method, in spite of some limitations, will continue to stay as the oldest method.

IV. External or Internal Training:

Mostly confined to skilled and technical per­sonnel, this type of training is imparted in voca­tional schools and technical institutions. These in­stitutions train candidates – sent to them by individual enterprises. Broad-based training is given to the candidates through classroom lectures with practical class illustrations.


But still they do not gain practical knowledge and experience for which they are ultimately sent to some business enterprise to gain actual work experience. To bring about a balance between theory and practice, this internship training has been introduced.

Besides the above methods of training, we find today a method of training – co-operative in na­ture. This training is imparted in schools, colleges and trade schools. Such a Co-operative training en­visages that a student will spend part of his time in a practical job experience and part of his time as a student in school. His job experience is related to his academic work in the classroom.

This scheme has been undertaken with the object of helping a young man to gather some experience while taking his usual academic qualification and thus he is getting a more acceptable bio-data for his employ­ment in future. The significance of such a training scheme in a country like ours – where employment situation is very critical – cannot be over­emphasised. Special beneficiaries of such co­operative training are the co-operative companies.

Special Course training is provided to those who have already been trained on the job or by the vestibule method. They are deputed to outside in­stitutions for attending special courses to improve their skill. For instance, an accounts clerk is sent to learn book-keeping. Such training obviously equips an employee with better knowledge though cost factor cannot be overlooked.

Other methods of training are – Refresher training, Learner training and supervisory training which do not need any elucidation.

Types of Training – 5 Main Types: Orientation Training, Job Training, Craft Training, Internship Training and Retraining

Type # 1. Induction or Orientation Training:

This type of training is concerned with the problem of acquainting a new employee to the organisation and its procedures, rules and regulations. Under this kind of training the new-comer is acquainted with the company’s background, history, policies, plans, objectives, products, work environment etc. He is as well introduced to his fellow workers. This training is aimed at introducing the new employee to the organisation.

Type # 2. Job Training:


Job training is necessary for new employees to acquaint them with the job are expected to perform. The objective behind the job training is to enable the employees to learn new techniques, skills and knowledge and create interest in the job and to minimise the accidents. It is a different kind of training, Under this kind of training workers are trained in handling machines, equipment and materials so that operations go on smoothly and failures as well as accidents are avoided. It is more formal in plant training programme.

Type # 3. Craft Training:

Apprenticeship training is the major method adopted for this type of training. This kind of training involves, training for craftsmanship, preparing them not for a single job but for many types of related jobs which can be assigned to a competent craftsman. The extent and intensity of training vary from craft to craft. The Governments of various countries have passed laws which make it obligatory on certain categories of employers to provide apprenticeship training to the young people.

Type # 4. Internship Training:

Internship training is usually means for such vocations where advance theoretical knowledge is to be backed up by practical experience on the job. In modern era internship training is quite popular just because of proper co-operation between employees and professional, and vocational institutions. The duration of this training generally varies from six months to two years.

The way of imparting training is such that engineering students are sent to big industrial enterprises for gaining practical work experience and medical students are sent to big hospitals to get practical knowledge. Management institute’s students are sent to big business enterprises to get the practical knowledge of management. These trainees are students only and not the employees of the organisation but when suitable vacancies or jobs occur in the business organisation, these trained students get the preference.

Type # 5. Refresher Training or Retraining:

According to Dale Yoder, Retraining programmes are designed to avoid personnel obsolescence. This training is arranged for old or existing employees of the business organisation. The main objective of this type of training is to acquaint the employees with the latest or advanced methods of performing their jobs or functions and thereby improving their performance and efficiency.

This training is necessary because, at every moment, there are lots of changes in technology, in methods of production as well as introduction of new machines, etc. Refresher training is essential in managing business organisation effectively, efficiently and profitably.

Types of Training – Used in Industry Depending Upon the Purpose of Training

Depending upon the purpose of training, the following kinds of training programmes are used in industry:

1. Induction or orientation training.

2. Apprenticeship training.

Now we shall discuss these kinds of training.

1. Induction or Orientation Training:

Induction is concerned with introducing or orienting a new employee to the organisation and its procedures, rules and regulations. When a new employee reports for work, he must be helped to get acquainted with the work environment and fellow employees. It is better to give him a friendly welcome when he joins the organisation, get him introduced to the organisation and help him to get a general idea about the rule and regulations, working conditions, etc. of the organisation.

The benefits of induction or orientation and socialisation of new employees are as follows:

(i) It builds up the new employee’s confidence in the organisation and in himself so that he may become an efficient employee.

(ii) It gives the new entrant the information he needs, such as location of locker rooms, cafeteria and other facilities, time to break off, leave rules, etc.

(iii) It promotes a feeling of belonging and loyalty to the organisation among newcomers.

(iv) It ensures that new employee does not form false impressions regarding the place of work because first impression is the last impression.

2. Apprenticeship Training:

Apprenticeship training involves imparting knowledge and skills in a particular craft or trade such as printing, tool making, etc. The Governments of various countries have passed laws which make it obligatory on certain employers to provide apprenticeship training to the young people. Apprenticeship training is desirable in industries which require a constant flow of new employees expected to become all-round craftsmen. It is very much prevalent in printing trade, building and construction, and vocations like mechanists, electricians, welders, etc. It is similar to on- the-job training.

Under apprenticeships training, the trainee is placed under the supervision of an experienced person who imparts him the necessary skills and regulates his performance. The advantages of apprenticeship training to the trainees are that they receive stipend while learning and acquire valuable skill which commands a high wage in the labour market. In India, there are so many ‘earn when you learn’ schemes, both in the private as well as public section undertakings. This is also advantageous to the employers. Some employers look upon apprentices as a source of cheap labour.

Types of Training – 4 Usual Types: Induction Training, Job Training, Training for Promotion and Refresher Process

Training is the systematic process of enhancing the job related skills, attitude and knowledge of personnel. It enables employees to develop and rise within the organisation, increase their market value. Basically, the top management is responsible for training of employees in the organisation. The commitment of top management is an essential qualification of training programmes because it involves in framing training policy.

The HR managers or Training manager is highly involved in plans, establishes and evaluates instructional programmes but the responsibility for implementation of training programmes belongs primarily to the line managers. The Major role of the training manager is to assist employees in obtaining knowledge and skills needed for present and future jobs and also to assist them in attaining personal goals.

The creation of a desire for training of the employees is possible if they believe that the resulting modification in the behaviour is in their own interest and they can perform their job in a better way after attending the particular training programme because learning is a self-activity and employee development is self-development.

The trainee should be provided ‘feedback’ on the progress, he is making in utilizing the training he has received.

Generally the feedback is based on two points:

1. Trainee must know what aspect of his performance is not upto par; and

2. He must know precisely what corrective actions he must take to improve his performance.

The feedback should be fast and frequent especially for lower level jobs which are often routine and completed quickly.

The training programmes are always organized with different and specific purpose in view. Accordingly this type of the training programme will depend on purposes of such programmes.

Following are the usual types:

(a) Induction Training – The purpose is to familiarize the new entrants to the organisation, its objective, rules and working conditions.

(b) Job Training – In case of new entrants the purpose is to acquaint them with the jobs they are expected to perform and to train them to handle the equipment and raw materials correctly and perform the job operations efficiently. For old employees the purposes is acquaint them with the latest methods of executing the jobs and improve further their efficiency.

(c) Training for Promotion – Promotions provides encouragement to employees and in many organisations; senior posts are filled by promotions. Promotion carries with it new responsibilities for which the incumbent must be prepared. The purpose of this type of training is to meet this demand.

(d) Refresher Process – With the passing of time, employees are likely to forget some of the instructions and methods, which they might have learned earlier. This type of training is supposed to revive the earlier learning’s in the minds of the employees through short-term refresher courses.

Types of Training – Top 5 Types: Orientation Training, In-Plant Training, Apprenticeship Training, Internship Training and Refresher Training

The important types of training are as follows:

1. Induction/orientation training.

2. Job Training/in-plant training.

3. Apprenticeship/craft training.

4. Internship training.

5. Refresher/re-training.

Type # 1. Induction/Orientation Training:

Induction or orientation training is introducing the new employee to the rules, regulations, and procedures of the organization. It is also concerned with making the new employee acquainted with his/her work environment and with other employees. Induction programmes help the new employees to get information regarding the canteen, leave rules, lunch hour, etc. In small organizations, the induction programme is informal, but in large organizations, it is a formal affair for about a week or two.

Type # 2. Job Training/In-Plant Training:

Job training or in-plant training is given to an employee so that he/she becomes proficient in handling machines, equipment, materials, process of production, instructions to be followed, and methods to be used. Job training helps the employee to perform the job efficiently by learning new techniques, skill, and knowledge.

It is misleading to think of job training only in terms of formal courses. Almost everything that happens to an employee after he/she joins the company serves as a training experience. The man­agement must, therefore, be careful to see that the impact of casual day-to-day experiences do not nullify the practices stressed in the more formal training sessions.

To make on-the-job training successful, the following conditions should be satisfied:

(a) What and how much of the job is to be taught should be carefully determined.

(b) The instructor should be carefully selected and trained.

(c) A definite follow-up schedule should be provided so that the results of training can be established.

The main advantage of this training is that the trainee learns while using the actual equipment and in the real environment of the job. The main drawback of this method is that it is often highly disorganized and may not be properly supervised.

Type # 3. Apprenticeship Training:

Apprenticeship training, one of the oldest forms of on-the-job train­ing, is frequently used to train employees in certain skilled crafts, trades, and technical areas. Commonly found in industries such as metalworking, carpentry, plumbing, and printing, apprentices are trainees who spend a considerable period of time working with experienced master craftsperson who act as instructors.

The training period varies according to the craft. For example, the apprenticeship training period for toolmakers may be a few years, and for machin­ists a few months. Most apprenticeship programmes begin with classroom training that focuses on theory and on auxiliary skills needed to perform the job.

Trainees then go on the job. Initially, trainees are allowed to perform only limited tasks, and as they gain experience and expertise they are allowed and encouraged to perform all the job-related tasks of a skilled craftsperson. The gov­ernments of various countries have passed laws which make it obligatory on certain categories of employers to provide apprenticeship training to employees. In India, the Apprenticeship Act, 1961, makes it obligatory on the part of all employers in the specified industries to place appren­tices in the designated trades in terms of clearly spelt out standards.

The Indian Apprentices Act, 1961, defines an apprentice as a person who is undergoing appren­ticeship training in a designated trade in pursuance of a contract of apprenticeship. The Act regu­lates the training of apprentices in the designated trades. Apprenticeship training is essentially a method of developing skilled workmen.

The training is basically on-the-job in nature. In addi­tion to providing basic and practical training, apprentices should be trained to develop leader­ship qualities, cooperativeness, justice, tolerance, and an interest in personal problems. The Act does not provide for these.

Type # 4. Internship Training:

In internship training, the intern gets theoretical as well as practical experi­ence from the job. This type of training is very popular in the case of engineering as well as medi­cal students.

Type # 5. Refresher Training:

Refresher training is imparted to the employees who are working in the organization to acquaint themselves with the latest methods for performing the job. The change in technology also necessitates refresher training for existing employees.