After re-organisation of Punjab, technical revolution was introduced in agriculture. With the result of this the agricultural production increased tremendously.

This rapid increase in agricultural production is called Green revolution.

The large increase in agricultural production due to mechanised agriculture, use of High yielding variety of seeds, use of chemical fertilizers and plant protection by spraying pesticides, etc. is called Green Revolution.

Green revolution has two aspects:


(a) Rapid increase in agricultural production.

(b) Maintenance of high level of agricultural production.

In 1965-66, production of food grains in Punjab was 33.89 lakh tonnes and in 2002-03, production of food grains increased to 235 lakh tonnes.

Causes of Green Revolution:

The following are the main causes of green revolution:

(i) Irrigation:


Better irrigation facilities are responsible for green revolution. In 1965-66, 22 lakh hectares area had irrigation facility: while 76 lakh hectares area got this facility in year 2002-03. Tube well irrigation has rapidly increased.

(ii) Agricultural Machinery:

In Punjab, the agriculture is mechanised. Tractors, harvesting combines, tube wells and pumping sets and threshers etc. are intensively used in Punjab. Punjab has largest number of tractors. In 1966, there were 10 thousand tractors, while in 2002-03, it increased to 3.54 lakhs.

(iii) Fertilizers:

The use of chemical fertilizers has increased the production of food grains to large extent. In 1965-66 chemical fertilizers were used 97 thousand tonnes. In 2002-03, their use increased to 1441 thousand tonnes.

(iv) High Yielding Variety of Seeds (HYV):

The use of HYV seeds have played major role in increasing agricultural production. For example, per hectare yield of wheat has increased from 1200 kgms to 4500 kgm. In case of rice the yield increased from 1000 kgms to 3500 kgms. So HYV seeds has increased the production tremendously.

(v) Plant Protection:


There was no arrangement to protect the plants against disease in previous times. So crops were damaged on large scale. Now there are proper arrangements to protect the plants against diseases and pests. Pesticides are sprayed to protect the plants. Plant clinics are opened to provide expert advice to farmers against diseases.

(vi) Research:

Punjab Agricultural university (PAU) Ludhiana has done a lot of research on agricultural problems. The university provided better quality seeds for wheat, rice, cotton, gram, maize, sugarcane and oilseeds. The university organises Kisan Melas twice a year in order to provide knowledge of new agricultural techniques to farmers.

(vii) New Techniques

Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana has been imparting training to farmers under Intensive Agriculture District programme (lADP). Under this programme, much attention is paid to crop rotation, chemical fertilizers, use of HYV seeds and water etc.

(viii) Marketing Facilities:

Previously marketing facilities were inadequate. Farmers had to sell their produce in unregulated markets and got less price of their produce. Now the Govt. has provided marketing facilities to farmers. Now 144 Regulated markets have been set-up in Punjab. Farmers can now store their produce in warehouses and cold storages and can get remunerative price of their produce.

(ix) Multiple Cropping:

Proper arrangement of irrigation and used HYV seeds, enabled the farmers to grow more than one crop in a year. For example in wheat and rice rotation, Moong and sunflower can be sown in same field. Due to multiple cropping production of food grain has increased tremendously. In 2002-03, multiple cropping was done in an area of 3600 thousand hectares.

(x) Price Incentive:

Rich harvest can bring down price. To avoid this prices of various agricultural produces are fixed by ‘Agriculture Cost and Price Commission’ Govt. buys agriculture produce at minimum price fixed by commission through agencies like Food corporation of India, Markfed and Punsup etc. So farmers get minimum support price fixed by commission.

(xi) Govt. Efforts:

Under five Year Plans, govt. has made many efforts for agricultural development. During Eighth Plan, Govt. has to spend Rs. 590 crore on agricultural development and Rs. 644 crore on irrigation.

(xii) Other Reforms:

State Govt. has done a lot to develop the agricultural production. The scattered holdings of the farmers have been consolidated in one large holding. The Farmer can arrange for irrigation facilities on the large holding.

(xiii) Credit facilities:

More credit facilities have been provided to farmers. In past money lenders provide credit to farmers at a very high rate. Now Agricultural Development Banks and Co-operative credit societies provide loan facilities to farmers. In 2003, these facilities increased to 605 crores. Cheap credit facilities enabled farmers to buy more HYV seeds, machines and chemical fertilizers.

(xiv) Land Reclamation:


The Govt. has done efforts to make the uncultivable land to cultivable. The land development and Reclamation corporation was established to make the land cultivable. In 1990-91, 25,600 hectares of land made fit for agriculture. In 1996-97, 20,000 hectares land was reclaimed.