The following points highlight the top ten features of new agricultural strategy of India.
They are: 1. Consolidation of land holdings 2. Improved Variety of Seeds 3. Greater Intensity of Cropping 4. Extension of Irrigation 5. Modern Farm Machinery 6. Role of Public Institutions 7. Package of Inputs 8. Guaranteed Minimum Prices 9. Agricultural Research and Education 10. Plant Protection Measures.
Feature # 1. Consolidation of Land Holdings:
Land ownership rights to the tillers and basic forward outlook Punjab farmers was the basic reason for providing ground to the green revolution in the northern India.
Feature # 2. Improved Variety of Seeds:
Agricultural revolution is primarily due to the miracle of improved varieties of seeds which have increased yields per acre.
Among these, we may mention the new dwarf varieties of wheat PV-18, Kalyan Sona 27, HD 2329, Hybrid Maize, Rice IR-8, PR 106, Padma and Jaya etc.
Feature # 3. Greater Intensity of Cropping:
The new agricultural strategy is not only concerned with higher yield but also with greater intensity of cropping. Therefore, new crop rotations have been made possible by developing short duration varieties of paddy, jowar, bajra and maize which are suited to different agro-climatic conditions. In the same way, other crops like barley, oilseed, potato and vegetables have also been considered for rotation.
Feature # 4. Extension of Irrigation:
In the areas, where new agricultural strategy is being applied, irrigation facilities are speedily being expanded to assure the adequate water supply. During the last 10-12 years, there has occurred a remarkable growth of tube-wells, pump-sets etc.
Feature # 5. Modern Farm Machinery:
Modern farm machinery like tractors, harvesters, pumping sets, tube-well, etc. are being increasingly used and are replacing the bullocks. Being, time saving, use of modern machinery in agriculture is conducive to multiple cropping. Because of accuracy and timelines of use of inputs by machines, the costs have been reduced.
Feature # 6. Role of Public Institutions:
Several new public institutions like National Seeds Corporation, Agro Industries Corporations, National Co-operative Development Corporation etc. have been set up to promote services to the cultivators at door steps. Moreover, they have been provided with sufficient funds to lend liberal loans to peasants to adopt latest farm technology.
Feature # 7. Package of Inputs:
The main thrust of the new agricultural strategy is the application of the package of improved practices. In other words, it aimed at making the cultivators to adopt simultaneously all the elements needed for augmenting production. The main constituents of the package practices are improved seed, fertilizers, plant protection measures and water use etc.
Feature # 8. Guaranteed Minimum Prices:
The guaranteed minimum prices have been given due recognition as an incentive to agricultural production. Support price policy for food-grains was adopted in 1964 throughout the country. In order to advice the govt. for suitable price policies for agriculture, Agricultural Price Commission was set up in the subsequent years. Similarly, Food Corporation of India was also set up to purchase food-grains.
Feature # 9. Agricultural Research and Education:
A number of measures have been adopted in this direction of facilitate organisation and development of agricultural research. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research was reorganised in 1965. Agricultural Universities have been set up in most of the states which were conceived as combining the function of education, research and extension.
States Agro Industries Corporation have been set up to motivate the cultivators for the application of improved inputs and infrastructure and further to Co-ordinate the demand with production, quality control and distribution of supporting services.
Feature # 10. Plant Protection Measures:
As pests and diseases have been causing severe damage to crops, plant protection has been considered another major component of new agricultural strategy. This programme includes seeds treatment, intensive aerial and ground spraying against insects, weed control and rodent control.