The following points highlight the seven main arguments in favour that India is not an over-populated country. The arguments are: 1. Huge Stock of Natural Resources 2. Density of Population 3. Increasing per Capita income 4. Higher Growth in Agricultural Production 5. Under-Utilised Potential for Development 6. Labour Scarcity 7. Non-Relevance of Positive Checks.
Argument # 1. Huge Stock of Natural Resources:
India is maintaining a huge stock of natural resources which includes minerals, land, forest, water, livestock etc. Therefore, the country is in a position to sustain a huge size of increasing population with the proper utilisation of such resources.
Argument # 2. Density of Population:
Although the size of population in India is quite high but due to huge size of land within its possession the density of population of the country is still comparatively less in comparison to many other countries. In 1991 census, the density of population of India was 267 per sq. km. as compared to that of 316 in Japan. Thus India cannot be termed as over-populated. However density increases to 382 per sq. km. in 2011.
Argument # 3. Increasing per Capita income:
With the continuous increase in the size of population the per capita income in India is also maintaining an increasing trend. In India the per capita income at current prices has increased from Rs 238 in 1950-51 to Rs 88,533 in 2014-15. Such increasing trend in the per capita income suggests that India is not over-populated.
Argument # 4. Higher Growth in Agricultural Production:
The rate of growth of agricultural production in India has been exceeding its population growth rate. During the current period of 1981-98, the rate of annual average growth of population in India was 1.9 per cent as compared to growth rate of food grains of 3.6 per cent per annum. The per capita availability of food grains has also increased from 430 gram in 1955-56 to 463.5 gram in 2011. Therefore, the country cannot be termed as over-populated.
Argument # 5. Under-Utilised Potential for Development:
In India, the development potential in agricultural, industrial and infrastructural sectors largely remains under-utilised. Such under-utilised huge potential for development never suggests that India is an over-populated country.
Argument # 6. Labour Scarcity:
In India, the scarcity of labourers is being felt during busy seasons like harvesting time, festivals etc., which is not an indication of over-populated country.
Argument # 7. Non-Relevance of Positive Checks:
Positive checks like famine, disease, starvation, death etc. raises the death rate in an over-populated country as per Malthusian principle. But in India, death rate has been declining from 48.6 per thousand during 1911-20 to 7.0 per thousand in 2013.
Therefore, it suggests that the idea of positive checks does not apply in India and therefore it cannot be termed as over populated. With these aforesaid facts, a group of economists suggests that India is not an over-populated country.