Some of the main features of occupational structure in India are as follows:
1. Agriculture is Main Occupation:
In India, agriculture is the main occupation. 66.7 percent of population is engaged in agriculture as against 71 percent in 1901.
This has given rise to disguised unemployment. So there is very small chance of reducing the burden of population on agriculture.
2. Less development of industries:
17 percent of population depends on manufacturing industries in India. In USA 32 percent, in England 42 percent and in Japan 39 percent people are engaged in secondary sector. It shown that India is industrially backward.
Indian economy is highly unbalanced. All production activities are not equally developed. Too much dependence on agriculture is a symptom of economic backwardness.
4. Less Income:
Per capita income and standard of living of the people in India is low. It is so because agriculture yields less income than trade.
5. Small Villages:
Dominance of agriculture proves that most of the people in India must be living in small villages and number of people living in towns and cities must be very small. In India 76 percent of population lives in rural areas and 24 percent in urban areas.
6. Backward Agriculture:
66 percent of population is engaged in agriculture. In India, yet we import food grains from other countries. It testifies that our agriculture is very backward. On the other hand, in America, 2 percent of population is engaged in agriculture which exports the surplus of food to other countries. It shows that agriculture sector should be developed.
7. Increase in the proportion of Agriculture Labourers:
The proportion of agricultural labourers has been rising during the period of planning. It shows the fact that the number of wage earners is increasing in agricultural sector.
8. Less development of tertiary sector:
Tertiary sector which includes services, banking, communication, transport etc. is not much developed in India. In India, 20.5 percent of population is engaged in tertiary activities as against 66 percent in America, 56 percent in England and 49 percent in Japan.