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Types of Leadership

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Leadership cannot exist without followers. The characteristics of the followers play a vital role in the exercise of leadership.

The behaviour of a leader is based on the maturity levels of the followers. Here, maturity level refers to job enrichness and psychological maturity (motivation) of followers.

Thus, the leader has to adopt task behaviour if he has low level maturity followers and tell them what, when, where and how the given work is to be completed. In other words, if the leader has high level maturity followers, he can adopt assigning behaviour and the entire work along with freedom to complete the work.

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Some of the types of leadership are:-

1. Autocratic Leadership 2. Laissez Faire or Free Rein Leadership 3. Democratic Leadership 4. Expert or Functional Leadership 5. Institutional Leadership 6. Paternalistic Leadership

7. Intellectual Leadership 8. Liberal Leadership 9. Inducing Leadership 10. Creative Leadership 11. Persuasive 12. Bureaucratic 13. Quarter back

14. Directive 15. Permissive 16. Participative 17. Task or Production Oriented Leadership 18. People Oriented Leadership 19. Japanese Leadership.


Types of Leadership: Autocratic Leadership, Free Rein Leadership, Democratic Leadership, Functional Leadership and Creative Leadership

Types of Leadership – 6 Types

Leadership cannot exist without followers. The characteristics of the followers and the conditions, under which they follow, are materials to the exercise of leadership. The maturity levels of the followers, namely their ability (job maturity) and willingness or motivation (psychological maturity) with to a great extent determine the behavior of the leader vis-a-vis his follower.

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Thus, in respect of the followers with low maturity who are neither able nor willing to perform, the leader will have to adopt task behavior, i.e. he will have to tell them what, how, when and where the given task is to be performed. Similarly, the leader will have suitably to adjust his behavior with followers who are able but not willing, or willing but not able, or both able and willing.

Based on the types of leader behavior, leadership may be classified as follows:

1. Autocratic Leadership

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2. Laissez Faire or Free Rein Leadership

3. Democratic Leadership

4. Intellectual of Functional Leadership

5. Institutional Leadership

6. Paternalistic Leadership

Type # 1. Autocratic Leadership:

An autocratic leader is one who tends to run the show all by him. He specifics the goals which he requires his followers to perform, organizes the work situation, sets the time – frame within which the task is to be accomplished, provides specific directions and requires the followers to keep him regularly posted with the progress of the task.

The autocratic leader views his followers as having little or no maturity as regards skills or willingness with which the job is to be accomplished. As such, he will neither have any discussion with them as to any aspect of job accomplishment, nor delegate to them any authority.

To extract the required performance from his follower, he exercise close supervision and control and uses his reward and coercive power to that end. Thus, if the followers comply with the leader’s expectations as regards performance, he rewards them. If they are lacking in performance, he uses coercive power to induce performance and holds out the threat of punishment by way of inconvenient work assignments, fines, or dismissal.

An autocratic leader believers in the “X” theory of motivation and firmly believes that without close supervision, control and fear of punishment, followers will not work since they are inherently lazy, unambitious, and averse to accept responsibility, or take any initiative.

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An autocratic leader is in fact no leader. He is merely the formal head of his organisation. Workers under him feel harassed and disturbed, and prepare themselves sooner or later to offer resistance. With the emergence of indiscipline among his staff, the autocratic leader fails to obtain unquestioned compliance from his workers because they begin to assert themselves, and the result is that they gradually stop obeying his orders. After a time, there is total loss of his authority to demand compliance.

Type # 2. Laissez Faire or Free Rein Leadership:

A laissez faire or free rein leader permits his followers to do whatever they want to do. He does not formulate any policies or procedures and does not lay down guidelines within which the followers could accomplish their jobs. Thus, his followers are left to fend for themselves.

Since in a laissez faire set up, there is no attempt on the part of anyone to influence anyone else, there is a vast scope and opportunity for an extensive range of behavior, though it may often be at cross – purposes. There is a near total abdication of formal leadership according to the needs of each situation.

Obviously, laissez faire leadership can be successful only where the followers have a high degree of maturity, i.e., they are both able and willing to perform. In the case of followers with less than high maturity, such leadership is not likely to succeed because, in the absence of suitable task behavior on the part of the leader, they would merely grope in the dark, not knowing that, how, when and where to perform. Besides, deprivation of socio-emotional support from the leader may make them feel insecure and vulnerable.

Type # 3. Democratic Leadership:

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Democratic style of leadership is based on the assumption that the leader derives his power by consent of the followers whom he is to lead and that give proper motivational environment; they can direct themselves and be creative on their respective jobs. In other works, while the followers have the requisite ability to perform the jobs, they are lacking in willingness to do so.

The democratic leaders encourage his followers to participate in decision-making and implementation. However, decisions are made only within the limits established by the policies and procedures which, again, are formulated after elaborate group discussion.

Of course, the leader is present all along to guide and control the discussion but the followers are allowed to express their points of view without any let or hindrance. The decisions formulated during these discussions represent the consensus of all participants.

Democratic leadership seeks to evolve a self-regulating and self-disciplining mechanism. If any member of the group does anything which is in any manner opposed to the interests of the group, he is promptly checked and controlled by the other members of the group, and this is done by means of a system of rewards and punishment devised by the group.

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Participation, consultation and agreement of the group remember are important features of a democratic leadership. Democratic functioning can at times be dilatory and subject to various pulls and pressure from different groups, or individuals, representing opposite viewpoints.

Moreover, participative leadership is based on the assumption that the followers are all able, though not willing to perform the tasks assigned to them. In the even, it poses the problem of working out a system of proper motivational support that would be equally acceptable to all.

Type # 4. Expert or Functional Leadership:

An expert of functional leader does not command; any formal authority in the literal sense of the term. He only stands out because of his special qualifications for the job handled by him. Which is also the main reason why followers look up to him for guidance and control?

The expert leader is essentially task-oriented, and most of his time is spent thinking about doing things faster and better. He has his eyes firmly fixed on what he intends to achieve and pursues his goal single – mindedly. However, since his success depends not only on his own work, but also on the activities of his followers, he may not be as effective as he plans.

If his followers are not as serious and painstaking as he is, he may behave as demanding fashion, in the process relying more and more on the “X” theory of motivation. In the event, his followers may feel frustrated as they are prevented from maximizing their own potential. Over time the situation may get from bad to worse, because the expert leader is by definition quite poor on the human relations front.

Type # 5. Institutional Leadership:

The institutional leader is one who wields power over his followers due to the position of office occupied by him in the organizational hierarchy. At times, he may also derive power from his personality and behaviors. By virtue of such positional and personal power, he manipulates and controls are activities of others to accomplish the group objectives.

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The institutional leadership may or may not be an expert in his field of activity. When he, lacks the expertise, he may suffer from a sense of inadequacy, leading to an inferiority complex, and to compensate for it, he may exert to an exceptional extent to achieve his objectives. In the process, he may engage more and more in task behavior and less and less in relationship behavior, such that the followers may develop a feeling of frustration and alienation.

Type # 6. Paternalistic Leadership:

A paternalistic leadership is characterized primarily by loyalty of followers in a warm and cohesive setting. The leader is much concerned with the well-being of his followers and comes to their rescue ever so often.

Since a paternalistic leader is concerned more with relationship behavior, it can be successful only in cases where the followers possess job maturity and are only lacking in psychological maturity. In any other case such leader may only produce an atmosphere of a country – club which may display social warmth and cohesion but can do little way of accomplishment of tasks.

Even otherwise, under a paternalistic leader the followers, particularly the competent and achievement – oriented among them, feel frustrated due to lack of opportunity for showing initiative. This is because while the leader, like a banyan tree, gives protection to all, the unwittingly creates conditions under which no follower can grow and be able to realize his potential.


Types of Leadership – Classified on the Basis of Behaviour of Leaders

Leadership cannot exist without followers. The characteristics of the followers play a vital role in the exercise of leadership. The behaviour of a leader is based on the maturity levels of the followers. Here, maturity level refers to job enrichness and psychological maturity (motivation) of followers.

Thus, the leader has to adopt task behaviour if he has low level maturity followers and tell them what, when, where and how the given work is to be completed. In other words, if the leader has high level maturity followers, he can adopt assigning behaviour and the entire work along with freedom to complete the work.

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The types of leaders are classified on the basis of behaviour of leaders.

They are briefly explained below:

1. Autocratic Leadership:

A leader is one who wants to run the organisation all by himself. He frames the objectives of the organisation and requires the followers to achieve the objectives. These objectives are expected to be achieved within the time limit fixed by him. Besides, he gives specific directions to his followers and he is regularly informed of the progress in work.

A leader thinks that his followers do not have much ability to do a job effectively. So, he avoids discussions with his followers regarding job completion. The leader does not delegate any authority to his followers. He has close supervision and control over his followers. He uses the technique of giving rewards and/or punishments to his followers.

If any follower completes his job according to the expectations of the leader, he will be rewarded. On the other hand, if any follower fails to complete his job as per the requirements, he will be penalised and the punishment may be in the form of company action or dismissal.

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2. Intellectual Leadership:

A leader wins the confidence of his followers by his intelligence. Generally, the advice of a leader is sought in big business concerns. He gives advice on the matter in which he is expert. He may be a specialist in sales, personnel management and the like. He gets results through others. He excels as a leader because he uses his superior knowledge.

3. Liberal Leadership:

A leader is one who permits his followers to do their job howsoever they want to do. The leader has not framed any policy or procedure which the followers are expected to follow in their jobs.

The liberal leader would not exercise any influence over his followers and vice versa. Wide scope and opportunities are available for free discussion which aims at performing the job effectively. The followers should have a high degree of maturity. High degree of maturity means the followers have both the ability and willingness to work.

If the followers have low maturity, the leader cannot succeed in his position. In other words, whenever the liberal leader has low maturity followers, he is not able to make his followers understand what, how, when and where to perform.

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4. Democratic Leadership:

A leader acts according to the wishes of his followers. The leader does what his followers want. The leader frames the policy or procedure according to the opinion of the majority of his followers. He acts as a representative of his followers to management. The leader holds his leadership because he is loyal to his followers. He is always interested in protecting the interests of his followers. The leader is a friend of his followers and he is helpful to them.

5. Institutional Leadership:

A leader exercises his power over his followers because of his position held in the organisational hierarchy. He exercises authority with which his post is invested. The leader can control the activities of his followers in order to achieve the objectives.

The leader may or may not be an expert in his field. If he is an expert, he will have relationship behaviour with his followers. If he is not so, he has task behaviour with his followers. The followers prefer relationship behaviour to task behaviour. Whenever the leader adopts task behaviour, the followers are frustrated.

6. Inducing Leadership:

The leader is one who influences his followers with his personality and persuades them to join him in doing a work. He loves and is loved by his followers. The followers have confidence in him and want his goodwill.

The leader gets things done by others through speaking nice words. The whole gang responds to the words of the leader.

7. Paternal Leadership:

An individual who has become the leader in the place of his father as leader has close relationship with his followers and comes to their rescue ever so often.

Paternal leader has job maturity followers only. The reason is that the followers may be lacking only in their psychological maturity. They are not permitted to show their initiative. The leader lays certain conditions under which the followers are expected to work. So the followers are not aware of their potential fully.

8. Creative Leadership:

The leader is one who encourages his followers to suggest new ideas, thoughts or ways. Sometimes, the leader himself puts forward new ideas. Whenever more than one new idea flows from the group, the leader will select the best one among them without personal bias. He controls his followers just like other leaders and makes them to achieve the specific goals. According to Ordway Tead, the followers adopt the big idea but not the big.


Types of Leadership – 6 Types of Leadership Based on the Nature of Leader Behaviour with Subordinates

Leadership cannot exist without followers. Characteristics of the followers and the conditions under which they follow the leader are material to the exercise of leadership. Similarly, he will need to suitably modify his behaviour to ensure desired perfor­mance on the part of his followers.

Types of Leaders Based on their Behaviour Styles:

Based on the nature of leader behaviour with subordinates, leadership may be classified as follows:

1. Autocratic leadership

2. Laissez Faire or Free Rein leadership

3. Democratic leadership

4. Intellectual or Functional leadership

5. Institutional leadership, and

6. Paternalistic leadership.

1. Autocratic Leadership:

Autocratic Leader Handles and Controls Everything Himself:

An autocratic leader is one who runs the show all by himself. He determines the tasks which he requires his followers to perform, organizes the work situation, sets the time-frame within which the task is to be performed, provides specific directions and requires to be regularly provided feedback on performance of those tasks.

Thinks Followers are Pack of Stupid Fellows:

An autocratic leader looks down on his followers. He thinks they are inferior to him and have no job maturity and psychological maturity to perform the jobs assigned to them. As such, he will neither have any discussion with them on any aspect of job accomplishment, nor delegate to them any authority.

Reward and Punishment to Followers Based on his Assessment of Performance:

To extract desired performance from his followers, he exercises strict, even coercive supervision and control over them. He rewards and punishes them based on his own evaluation of their performance. Thus, if workers perform as desired by him, he rewards them. If they do not, he uses coercive power to extract performance and holds out threat of punishment like transfer to inconvenient work places, fines, even dismissal from service.

An autocratic leader follows “X” theory of motivation propounded by Douglas McGregor because he firmly believes that workers are inherently lazy, unambitious, afraid to accept responsibility or take initiative, and they will not work without close supervision, control and fear of punishment.

An Autocrat only Dominates, does not Lead:

An autocratic leader is in fact no leader. He is merely the formal head of organization. Followers work­ing under him feel physically and mentally harassed and disturbed. Sooner rather than later, they rise in protest and resist autocratic behaviour, creating turmoil all around. Faced with staff resistance, the autocratic leader will soon find his orders are openly disobeyed and his authority challenged.

2. Free-Rein or Laissez-Faire Leadership:

Followers Freed from Supervision of Performance:

In free rein or laissez-faire leadership, the leader only assigns tasks to his followers and leaves them free to perform the task in whichever way they like. Of course, he provides them the resources—machines, tools, material—to perform their tasks, but does not supervise or guide them while they are perform­ing their tasks.

His authority as manager remains but it will be exercised only when followers ask for it. Warmth, friendliness, and understanding are noteworthy features of free-rein leadership.

In a laissez-faire set up, the leader does not influence the behaviour of any worker; so there is vast scope and opportunity for workers to engage in an extensive range of behaviour. However, workers’ behaviour may at times be at cross-purposes. But, there is a near-total abdication of formal leadership by the leader.

Merits or Advantages of Free-Rein Leadership:

There are many things to be said in favour of free-rein leadership. First, it allows complete freedom to followers to make decisions on performance of the tasks assigned to them. Chiefs of political parties practice free-rein leadership style while appointing their spokespersons whom they think is knowl­edgeable, professional and responsible.

Second, the leader provides all resources and tools required by followers for performance of the tasks assigned to them. Third, he does not supervise or guide work­ers; even he does not intervene if differences and disputes crop up among groups of followers. Four, free-rein leadership is marked by warmth, friendliness and understanding between the leader and followers.

They would merely grope in the dark, not knowing what, how, when and where to perform their tasks. Besides, deprivation of socio-emotional support from the leader may make them feel inse­cure and vulnerable.

Demerits or Setbacks of Free-Rein Leadership:

First, free-rein leadership is not advisable if the followers lack job maturity and/or psychological matu­rity. If they lack knowledge and skills required to perform the assigned tasks, they will not have the leader by their side to guide them. If they lack willingness to perform the assigned tasks, they will miss the leader who alone can provide them psychological support.

Second, some followers may not be able to set their own guidelines and timelines for performance of their tasks. Three, followers will not get feed­back about their performance. Four, there may be miscommunication between leaders and followers.

Organizations where Free-Rein Leadership will deliver Results:

Free-rein leadership works wonders in organizations engaged in research and development, develop­ment of computer hardware and software, creative writing, etc. Witness, for example, how new products and services are invented through research and development, or there are ever new computer apps and scripts for feature films and daily soaps on television. Reason? Workers have full freedom in planning and execution.

3. Democratic Leadership:

Leadership by Acceptance on the Part of Followers:

Democratic style of leadership is based on the assumption that a leader derives his power by consent and acceptance of his followers and that, given proper motivational support, they can direct them­selves and be creative on their respective jobs.

Active Participation in Decision-Making and Implementation:

A democratic leader encourages his followers to participate in decision-making and implementation of decisions. However, decisions are made only within the limits prescribed by predetermined policies and procedures which, again, are formulated after elaborate group discussions.

Of course, the leader is present all along to guide and control the discussion but the followers are allowed to express their points of view without any let or hindrance. The decisions formulated during these discussions repre­sent the consensus among participants.

No Support for Contrary Views or Actions of Followers:

Democratic leadership seeks to develop a self-regulating and self-disciplining mechanism. If any mem­ber of the group says or does anything which is opposed to the interests of the group, he is promptly checked and controlled by other members of the group, and this is done by means of a system of rewards and punishment devised by the group.

Witness, for example, a recognized representative of a political party made a statement and the leadership of party describes it as his personal opinion and distances itself from his statement.

Participation, consultation and agreement of group members are important features of democratic leadership. Democratic functioning can at times be dilatory and subject to various pulls and pressures from different groups or individuals. Moreover, participative leadership is based on the assumption that the followers are all able, though not always willing to perform the tasks assigned to them. In the event, it poses the problem of working out a suitable motivational support system that would be acceptable to all.

4. Expert, or Functional Leadership:

Leader has only Expertise, not Formal Authority:

An expert of functional leader does not command any formal authority in the literal sense of the term. He only stands out because of his special qualifications for the job handled by him, which is also the main reason why followers look up to him for guidance and control.

Expert Leader is Task-Oriented and Demands his Followers to be so, too:

An expert leader is task-oriented; he is obsessed with performing his task better and faster. He focuses not only on his own performance but also on that of his followers. If his followers are not as seriously task-oriented as he, he may indulge in coercive behaviour towards them and, in the pro­cess, adopt David McGregor’s “X” theory of motivation.

His followers will naturally feel frustrated because of denial of opportunity to be creative and maximizing their individual potential. Over time, the situation may go from bad to worse, because an expert leader is not an expert on human relations management.

5. Institutional Leadership:

Institutional Leader uses Authority and Power Granted by Position in Organization:

An institutional leader is one who exercises authority and power granted to him by the position occu­pied by him in organizational hierarchy. At times, he may also derive power from his personality and behaviour. He uses his positional or personal power to manipulate and control his followers for accom­plishment of organizational objectives.

Institutional Leader may or may not be Expert Performer himself:

An institutional leader may or may not be an expert in his field of activity. When he lacks expertise, he may suffer from a sense of inadequacy, leading to an inferiority complex. He will seek to compensate this feeling by overstraining himself and demanding more than usual performance from his followers. He will engage excessively in task-behaviour towards followers and have little regard for relationship behaviour for which, in any case, he has little inclination.

Effect on Followers:

Fed up with the leader’s obsessive concern for completion of tasks and lack of regard for their socio- emotional condition, followers will naturally feel frustrated and gradually lose their sense of belong­ing to the leader as well as sometimes to the organization itself.

6. Paternalistic Leadership:

Paternalistic Leader is Worker-Welfare Oriented:

A paternalistic leadership is characterized primarily by loyalty of followers in a warm and cohesive setting. The leader is much concerned with the well-being of his followers and comes to their rescue ever so often.

Paternalistic Leadership Works where Followers Possess Job Maturity but Lack Psychological Maturity:

Since a paternalistic leader is concerned more with relationship behaviour, it can be successful only in cases where followers possess job maturity— they have the required knowledge and skills to perform the jobs assigned to them—but not psychological maturity, i.e., willingness to perform their jobs. In any other case, such leader may only generate an atmosphere of a country-club where there is lot of display of social warmth and cohesion, but little concern for accomplishment of tasks.

Even otherwise, under a paternalistic leader the followers, particularly those who are competent and achievement- oriented, may feel frustrated because of lack of opportunity to take initiative and maximize their potential. This is because while the leader, like a banyan tree, gives protection to all, he unintentionally creates conditions under which no follower can grow to reach his potential.


Types of Leadership – 13 Types of Leadership according to Experts like Alfred and Beatty, Chris Argyris and Personnel Research Board of Ohio University

To Lead-leadership are three interrelated terms. A leader is a person who leads and leadership is the nomenclature of the quality to lead as well as a function to be performed while leading. Hence leader and leadership are so intermingled that it is not possible to separate them from each other. The only difference is that a leader is a human and leadership is an abstract quality. But, since leader is a human, so many factors psychological, social, intellectual, environmental status etc. work on him.

These factors qualify him to be a certain type of leader. As seen above leadership is the performance of a leader. Naturally, the type to which he belongs, affects his performance. Thus leadership is to be classified by considering all these aspects. The type of leader is directly and positively correlated with his performance i.e. leadership.

Experts like Alfred and Beatty, Chris Argyris and Personnel research board of Ohio University have given their own classification. There are some common categories, and some are more distinctly classified categories i.e. type.

If all these categories types are taken and read with reference to one another leadership can be classified as follows:

Types of leaders i.e. leadership:

1. Intellectual

2. Creative

3. Persuasive

4. Institutional

5. Democratic

6. Autocratic

7. Bureaucratic

8. Diplomatic

9. Expert

10. Quarter back

11. Directive

12. Permissive

13. Participative.

1. The Intellectual:

The leader possessing specialised intellectual authority and having in-depth knowledge and technical competence is known as intellectual leader. For instance, financial advisor, Marketing advisor, legal advisor.

2. The Creative:

A creative leader is one who encourages and welcomes new ideas from his followers and vice-versa. For this he uses the technique of “Circular response” Because of this he can easily point out the best of his followers and can keep proper control on them for the attainment of enterprise goals. A creative leader gives opportunity to his followers to do some creative work for the enterprise.

3. The Persuasive:

A Persuasive leader is one who by his personality and behaviour attracts many followers. The followers have faith and confidence in the persuasive leader. Therefore the followers are always ready to do anything told to them by the leader. This, in turn, helps the persuasive leader to get the things done by and through his followers.

4. The Institutional:

An institutional leader is one who become a leader because of his position in the institution. For instance, president or the chairman of the institution, principal of an educational institution, director or the chief executive of a company, secretary of an institution. The leadership is bestowed upon him by the position held by him in the organisation.

5. The Democratic:

A democratic leader is one who does not lead but is led by his followers. Democratic leader respects and adopts opinion of majority of his followers. Moreover many times he delegates most of his powers to the followers. Democratic leader is very honest and loyal to his followers.

6. The Autocratic:

An autocratic leader is one who dominates or keeps command over his followers. He is not ready to listen to any follower. He believes that followers should obey his orders only. He gets the things done from followers through fear, threat, coercion, punishment, command. He keeps all the powers and authority with him. He is never interested to delegate to the subordinates. He believes in strict discipline and obedience by others.

7. The Bureaucrat:

A bureaucrat leader is one who likes to stick to routine, who appeases is superiors and avoids his subordinates.

8. The Diplomat:

A diplomat leader is one who is opportunist and whenever gets a chance to exploit the people, he would exploit them. He does not trust his subordinates.

9. The Expert:

An expert leader is one who possesses specialised knowledge in a particular field. He is concerned with his specialised knowledge. He disrespects his subordinates and treats them as fellow workers. He is always proud of his specialisation and treats others as inferior.

10. The Quarter Back:

A leader who realises the contribution of his subordinates in attainment of organisational goals in known as quarter back leader. Such a leader likes to be identified with his subordinates even by displeasing his superiors. Many times the business organisations themselves, go for such group leaders.

11. Directive:

This type of leader always gives directions to his followers i.e. subordinates. He wants them to work according to his instruction. No one is an allowed to deviate from his instructions. He further judges the performance and announces rewards to workers having better performance and punishments to workers having below satisfactory performance. That is why he is called initiator of awards and punishments.

Such leaders think themselves to be far more superior to the subordinates. Naturally dissatisfaction prevails in subordinates with the effect that employee morale goes lower. Such leadership mark the developmental opportunities of the subordinates.

12. Permissive:

A leader who initiates action himself towards any job performance is known as permissive leader. He has high degree of tolerance. Naturally such leaders are very sensitive towards the feeling of others. He is generally successful in getting the work done with a satisfactory result. But the only demerit of such types may be mentioned as-no chance to the subordinates to develop them as leader.

13. The Participative:

The participative leader helps subordinates to develop their own initiative to take their own decisions and formulate their own methods and procedures for their work. He also helps them to recognise their own demands and wants. He, therefore, is able to win their co-operation for achieving his objectives.

Thus leadership is a process of influencing others to act in a way that will accomplish the objectives of the leader or the organisation. This process involves interpersonal influence in a specific situation towards the attainment of a specific goal. Therefore it is rightly said by someone that a leader is a person who stands out in influencing the activities of a group, making progress towards achieving the goals.

He plays multidimensional role such as group task role, group building and maintenance role and individual role. In group task role there are variety of roles played by him, for example as initiator, co­ordinator, orienteer, evaluator-critic, energizer, procedural technician, recorder etc. In group building and maintenance he plays role of encourager, harmonizer, compromiser, gatekeeper and expeditor, standard setter, group observer and commentator follower etc.

In individual role lie plays the aggressor, blocker, recognition seeker, special helper, pleader etc. All successful organisations have one common attribute i.e. leadership. Leadership has become an inevitable aspect in business/industry during the past few decades.


Types of Leadership – Authoritarian Leadership, Democratic Leadership, Free Rein Leadership, Task Oriented Leadership, People Oriented Leadership and Japanese Leadership

Mc Gregor argues that types of leadership depends on the people’s characteristics. The X and Y theory differentiates people’s characteristics. The X theory assumes that people do not like to do work. They are lazy. They want to be idle. They want to take rest by cheating others. Therefore, this type of people should be lead by an autocratic leader.

Then only, the leader can get work from them. Theory Y assumes that the people are self-directing and creative. They work with enthusiasm. They work on their own initiative. Therefore, they can be lead by Democratic leader.

The different types of leadership are:

1. Autocratic (or) Authoritarian Leadership-

(a) Benevolent Autocrat

(b) Tough Autocrat

2. Democratic Leadership

3. Laissez-faire or Free Rein Leadership

4. Task or Production Oriented Leadership

5. People Oriented Leadership, and

6. Japanese Leadership Styles.

1. Autocratic (or) Authoritarian Leadership:

An autocratic leader is self-centered and work-centered. He concentrates on the power and authority. He takes the decision-making authority. Autocratic leaders stress more on punishment and penalties. He threatens the employees. This type of leadership is based on the negative motivation.

The followers are always afraid of the leader’s authority. Some followers obey completely without asking any question because of the fear and security reason, whereas others resent it, oppose it, criticize it and try to do sabotage to dethrone the leader. This types of leadership leads to frustration, dissatisfaction, fear and conflict among the workers.

(a) Benevolent Autocrat:

Autocratic leader with the quality of good-samariton is considered as Benevolent Autocrat. Good Samariton is a hero-doing good to poor, helping the followers, kindness in his mind, God-fearing, believing the theory if you do good to others, you will get good thing.

(b) Tough Autocrat:

Autocratic leader with crooked mind and negative thinking about people will ruin the country. This type of lender is dangerous to the nation. Whatever the type, autocratic leader believes that he got power by his position. He usually feels that his followers should obey his orders and follow his instructions unquestionably. This style provides strong negative motivation of followers and rewards to the leader. This style suppresses the drive and creativity of the followers.

2. Democratic Leadership:

The democratic leader decentralizes the authority, he encourages participation of followers towards decision-making. He informs to the groups about all the activities and conditions affecting them. This type of leader wants the followers’ cooperation.

He believes that followers’ necessary cooperation, their involvement, their ideas, their team spirit and their morale are very much essential to attain the organisational goals. He encourages his subordinates to make full use of their talents and abilities. He makes the employees creative. He gives rewards and appreciates the employees who do well. This type of style increases job satisfaction and job performance.

3. Laissez-Faire or Free Rein Leadership:

In this type of leadership, we can say there is no leader at all. Because, here the group plays a dominant role. It sets its own goal and solves its own problems. The members of the group train themselves and motivate themselves. The group believes that all its members will work towards the attainment of goal set by them.

They make decision and work in support of the decision. Free-rein Leadership ignores the leader’s contribution in the same way as autocratic leader ignores the followers’ contribution. In free-rein leadership, the members of the group have a freedom to decide on their own. No one like leader is there to appreciate the members who do well.

4. Task or Production Oriented Leadership:

This type of leaders focus on the job to be done. They induce everyone to concentrate on the job and that job only. They bother about the production, productivity, and product only.

5. People Oriented Leadership:

This type of leaders, stress more on reducing tension, making the job more pleasant, keeping everyone happy, rather than on production. They have concern over the people. They get the support of the people.

6. Japanese Leadership Styles:

First:

(i) This type of leadership concentrates on the well-being of their employees.

(ii) Human assets are considered to be firm’s most important asset.

(iii) Managers spend a lot of time to talk to employees about everyday matters.

(iv) Managers are selected based on the quality of having good relationship with employees.

(v) Company sponsored cultural, athletic and other recreational activities are held to make employees’ lives happy.

Second:

(i) This type of leadership minimises the status differences.

(ii) From top executives to newly joined worker wear same uniform and same type of badge.

(iii) All employees are referred to as ‘associates’ and no designation.

(iv) No special privileges, such as private office, separate dining room, wash basin and private secretaries.

Third:

(i) They share a lot of information with employees at all levels.

(ii) Management keeps workers informed about the company’s goals and plans.

Fourth:

(i) They make employees participate in decision making.

(ii) The form a quality circle and most of the employees participate in quality circle.


Types of Leadership – With Advantages and Disadvantages

The main types of leadership are described below:

1. Autocratic or Authoritarian Leadership:

An autocratic leader is one who likes to run the show himself. He takes all decisions himself without consulting the followers. He gives orders and insists that they be obeyed. Subordinates are expected to do what they are told. Thus, under this style all decision-making power is centralied in the leader. He stresses his prerogative to decide and gives no freedom to the followers.

He considers his subordinates immature and delegates no authority to them. An autocratic leader exercises close supervision over subordinates. He holds out threats of punishment or uses his powers to distribute rewards on the assumption that people are lazy and will avoid work and shirk responsibility.

Advantages:

(i) Autocratic leadership permits quick decisions as a single person (leader) takes decisions.

(ii) It provides strong motivation and satisfaction to the leader.

(iii) Many subordinates prefer to work under centralised authority and strict discipline.

(iv) Less competent subordinates are needed at lower levels, and

(v) It can be successful where subordinates are reluctant to take initiative. For example, this style is quite common in India.

Disadvantages:

(i) People dislike this style specially when the motivational style is negative,

(ii) It leads to frustration, low morale and conflict which affect organisational efficiency,

(iii) Due to lack of opportunity to exercise initiative and judgement, future leadership does not develop. Followers remain uninformed, insecure and afraid of leader’s power,

(iv) There is resistance to change as workers feel harassed and disturbed.

Autocratic style is likely to be less effective in future because the literacy level and standard of living are rising. People are becoming socially aware and look for egoistic satisfaction from their jobs. The coming generation is less amenable to rigid direction and control, i.e., unquestioned compliance. That is why authoritarianism is gradually being resisted.

2. Participative or Democratic Leadership:

A democratic leader makes decisions in consultant on with his followers. He decentralises authority and allows the group to share his power. Instead of taking unilateral decisions, he allows the subordinates to discuss the problem and to express their opinions freely. Democratic style is based on the assumption that the leader derives his power by consent of the followers who are mature and can be creative.

Advantages:

(i) It reduces resistance to change and increases acceptance of new ideas,

(ii) It improves the attitudes of employees towards their jobs and the organisation,

(iii) It increases cooperation between management and workers,

(iv) It improves employee morale and reduces complaints or grievances,

(v) It facilitates the development of future leaders.

Disadvantages:

(i) It may be dilatory leading to delay in decisions,

(ii) It may be used covertly to manipulate employees,

(iii) Participation will not be meaningful unless the subordinates understand thoroughly the complex problems of the organisation,

(iv) It may not be liked by people who want minimum interaction with superiors and colleagues.

3. Free-Rein or Laissez-Faire Leadership:

A free-rein leader gives complete freedom to his followers to establish their own goals and policies. He does not lead and avoids power.

He maintains contacts with outsiders to bring the information and resources required by the group. The leader abdicates his authority and lets the group to operate entirely on its own.

Advantages:

(i) Complete freedom to subordinates improves their motivation and morale,

(ii) There is maximum opportunity for the development of subordinates.

Disadvantages:

(i) As there is abdication of formal leadership role, informal leaders emerge to fill the void,

(ii) The group does not get the benefit of leader’s inspired motivation, guidance and socio-emotional support,

(iii) It can succeed only when the followers are highly mature, able and self-motived. Otherwise they will feel insecure, vulnerable and may grope in the dark,

(iv) It ignores the manager’s contribution just as autocratic leadership ignores the contribution of the group.

4. Paternalistic Leadership:

A paternalistic leader serves as the head of the family and treats his followers like his family members. He assumes a paternal or fatherly role to help, guide and protect the followers. He provides them with good working conditions, fringe benefits, and welfare facilities, and services.

Such a style creates social warmth and group cohesiveness. But the employees may resent the leader’s gratitude in industrial organisations. There is little opportunity for them to exercise initiative to grow and realise their full potential. Paternalistic leader has been quite successful in Japan because of its cultural background.


Types of Leadership – Classification of Leadership on the Basis of Rewards and Power

A. Classification of Leadership on the Basis of Rewards:

i. Positive leadership – Leaders who motivate their employees through rewards-financial or non-financial. They use a positive style of leadership. Positive leadership results in high morale of workers, increase job satisfaction and higher contribution to organisational productivity and goals.

ii. Negative leadership – When leaders use penalties and punishments as means of motivation, they use negative style of leadership. Negative leadership also derives the desired performance of followers but at the cost of their morale and satisfaction.

B. Classification of Leadership on the Basis of Power:

i. Autocratic Leadership:

Autocratic leaders make decisions and issue orders and instructions to their followers by virtue of their position and authority. This style is characterised by centralisation of authority, close supervision, unilateral decision-making, one-way communication and rigid controls. It is directed as boss-centered leadership.

There are three types of autocratic leadership:

a. Strict autocrat uses negative motivation penalties, criticism of subordinates, coercion etc., to influence the behaviour of subordinates.

b. Benevolent autocrat uses centralised decision-making power but he uses positive motivation, (i.e., takes into account feelings and needs of subordinates etc.)

c. Incompetent autocrat – He adopts an autocratic style to hide his incompetence. This style cannot be used for a long time.

ii. Participative or Democratic Leadership:

A participative leader permits his subordinates to participate actively in the decision-making process. The final decision is the end product of combined efforts of all. A democratic leader leads by mutual consent. Decentralisation of authority, group decision making and two-way communication are the main features of democratic leadership.

A positive relationship between the leader and followers develop as subordinates feel they are trusted and consulted by the leader. The job satisfaction, motivation and morale of subordinates tend to be high.

iii. Laissez-Faire or Free-Rein Leadership:

Under this type of leadership, the leader allows the group to establish its own goals and work out its own problems.

The entire decision-making authority is entrusted to subordinates and the leader does not direct at all. This is also known as permissive style of leadership where there is least intervention by the leader, abdication of authority, and letting the group to operate entirely on its own.


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