Recruitment is the process by which a large number of prospective candidates are attracted by various methods to apply for the positions available.

According to Edwin B. Flippo, recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation.

The objective of recruitment is to attract a large number of potential candidates for the jobs avail­able, it is considered to be a positive concept. Selection, on the other hand, is often termed ‘negative’ because it tends to eliminate applicants, leaving only the best to be appointed.

The recruitment process starts with defining and approving vacant positions required to be filled in. The hiring manager is responsible for defining the vacant position and preparing a clear description of the job content, the requirements of the position, and necessary competencies.


Learn about:-

1. Meaning and Concept of Recruiting Employees 2. Need and Purpose for Recruiting Employees 3. Sources 4. Types of Recruitment Tests 5. Methods or Techniques 6. Process.

How to Recruit Employees? – Sources, Methods, Techniques, Steps and Process

How to Recruit Employees? – Meaning and Concept

Recruitment of human capital is not just placing the advertisements or calling consultants or employ­ment agencies. It is a much more complex exercise. We have to ensure that the human capital to be recruited matches the strategic plans of the organisation. Which method of recruitment would suite more to attract the desired human capital is another issue.

Should the organisation go for pre-screening to reduce the number of applicants to be interviewed? Can the organisation afford to pay slightly more than the ongoing rates of wages and salaries in the market as it helps in attracting the quality human capital? What is the image of the organisation in the market? All such issues affect the exercise of attract­ing the desired human capital.


Recruitment is the process by which a large number of prospective candidates are attracted by various methods to apply for the positions available. According to Edwin B. Flippo, recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation.

As the objective of recruitment is to attract a large number of potential candidates for the jobs avail­able, it is considered to be a positive concept. Selection, on the other hand, is often termed ‘negative’ because it tends to eliminate applicants, leaving only the best to be appointed.

The successful working of an organisation depends to a great extent on the policy and methods of recruitment of human capital. In case only the right kinds of candidates, in right number, on right wages and on right conditions are appointed, the future of the organisation is likely to be bright. It is basically for this reason that every organisation has an employment department called by different names in dif­ferent organisations.

Concept of Recruitment:


It goes without saying that seeking quality talent is a must for success of any organization. But several factors like industry-academia gap, intense competition in the job market etc., prevent many employers from finding the right fit. Hence many firms have devised various ways of bridging this gap, in a quest to attract competent, prospective employees.

One approach to recruitment is Prospecting Theory Approach which states that recruitment is a one-way process as organizations search for prospective employees. The other approach to recruitment is Mating Theory Approach, which states that not only organizations search prospective employees, but also prospective employees search organizations for the best grooming of their career.

Recruitment is one of the most important HR activities. It is the process of identifying and generating a pool of potential candidates and motivating them to apply for exiting or anticipated job openings.

It aims at:

i. Attracting a large number of qualified applicants who are ready to take up the job if it is offered. Attracting unqualified or marginally qualified candidates for any job is wastage of time, money and energy on the part of the organization. This cost can be avoided by targeting only the best qualified candidates for the job.

ii. Offering enough information for unqualified persons to self-select themselves out. The recruitment advertisement should be self-explanatory in nature, so that all the candidates before applying for the job can get a clear idea regarding the requirement of the job.

How to Recruit Employees? – Need and Purpose for Recruiting Employees

Need for Recruiting Employees:

The need of recruitment arises when a vacancy is created in the organisation and the position needs to be filled up.

The need for recruitment arises under three circumstances:

1. Planned circumstances,


2. Unexpected or unplanned situation and

3. Anticipated circumstances.

1. Planned Situation:

Planned situation refers to events which are planned beforehand or the organisation is aware that the event will occur in future. For instance if the organisation plans a refurbishment of its organisational structure, plans an expansion and diversification plan or retirement of personnel. In such situations the organisation can make a prior estimation of personnel needed and can work out its recruitment policy beforehand.


In the events of expansion, development and refurbishment of the organisation external sources of recruitment can be useful. In case of retirement of employees the vacant post may be filled by transfer or promotion of existing employees or may be filled from external sources.

2. Unexpected Situations:

Unexpected events like resignation, death, accident and illness gives rise to unexpected vacancy in the organisation. In such situations it becomes difficult for the organisation to continue its operation due to shortage of work force. Human resource department needs to make a prompt arrangement to fill the vacant post to ensure smooth flow of activities. In order to meet the immediate need work force can be arranged from internal sources through transfer or distribution of workload among existing work force.

The recruiter must quicken the recruitment process for hiring of employees from external sources. However the human resource manager while framing human resource plans and making an estimation of work force requirement takes into consideration the unexpected events that may occur in future.


3. Anticipated Events:

The organisations can predict the trend in the movement of personnel by studying the internal and external environment. Technological changes, employment laws, labour laws, overall organisational plans and strategies are incorporated in recruitment policies.

Purpose of Recruitment:

The purposes of recruitment are:

i. Attract and encourage more and more candidates to apply in the organisation.

ii. Create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organisation.

iii. Determine present and future requirements of the organization in conjunction with its personnel planning and job analysis activities.


iv. Recruitment is the process which links the employers with the employees.

v. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost.

vi. Help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing number of visibly under qualified or over qualified job applicants.

vii. Help reduce the probability that job applicants once recruited and selected will leave the organization only after a short period of time.

viii. Meet the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its workforce.

ix. Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates.


x. Increase organization and individual effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants.

How to Recruit Employees? – 3 Important Sources: Internal, External and Modern Sources (With Advantages and Disadvantages)

Generally, the learners of human resources management may feel that sources and techniques of recruitment are one and the same. But they are different. Sources are those where prospective employees are available like employment exchanges while techniques are those which stimulate the prospective employees to apply for jobs like nomination by employees, advertising, promotion, etc. Now we discuss the sources of recruitment. Management has to find out and develop sources of recruitment as early as possible because of high rate of time-lapse.

The sources of recruitment are broadly divided into internal sources and external sources. Internal sources are the sources within organisational pursuits. External sources are sources outside organisational pursuits.

These are explained as under:

1. Internal Sources:

Internal sources include- (a) present permanent employees, (b) present temporary/casual employees, (c) retrenched or retired employees, (d) dependants of deceased, disabled, retired and present employees, (e) employee referrals.

(a) Present Permanent Employees:


Organisations consider the candidates from this source for higher level jobs due to- (i) availability of most suitable candidates for jobs relatively or equally to the external source, (ii) to meet the trade union demands, (iii) to the policy of the organisation to motivate the present employees.

(b) Present Temporary or Casual or Part-Time Employees:

Organisations find this source to fill the vacancies relatively at the lower level owing to the availability of suitable candidates or trade and pressures or in order to motivate them on the present job.

(c) Retrenched or Retired Employees:

Generally, a particular organisation retrenches the employees due to lay-off. The organisation takes the candidates for employment from the retrenched employees due to obligation, trade union pressure and the like. Sometimes the organisations prefer to re-employ their retired employees as a token of their loyalty to the organisation or to postpone some inter-personal conflicts for promotion, etc.

(d) Dependents of Deceased, Disabled, Retired and Present Employees:


Some organisations with a view to developing the commitment and loyalty of not only the employee but also his family members and to build up image provide employment to the dependant(s) of deceased, disabled and present employees. Such organisations, find this source as an effective source of recruitment.

(e) Employee Referrals:

Employee referrals are the candidates/applicants recommended by the current employees. Current employees recommend those candidates whose performance and behaviour are known to them as well as suitable to the job and organisational needs. This source helps the organisation to get high quality applicants.

Organisations in the USA provide incentives to the current employees for recommending the most suitable candidates. This source reduces the cost of recruitment drastically.

William M.Mercer suggests the following measures to increase the effectiveness of employee referrals:

i. Up the ante – Provide benefits/incentives/commissions to current employees for recommending a suitable candidate as the companies pay commissions to employment agencies.

ii. Pay for performance – Pay the benefits to the current employee for the higher performance of newly hired employee recommended by the current employee concerned.

iii. Tailor the program – Educate the current employees about the type of candidates including skills, knowledge, behaviour and ethical aspects that the company is looking for.

This will enable the current employees to recommend the suitable candidates-

i. Increase visibility – Celebrate the successful referral programs, which would publicise the program.

ii. Keep the data – Keep the CV of unsuccessful candidates on file, which would be use Ail, when a vacancy arises suddenly.

iii. Rethink your taboos – Some companies do not employ the former employees, relatives and friends of current employees. Companies should discontinue this policy, as it would be difficult to get applications when labour market is tight.

iv. Widen the program – Companies can use former employees to recommend candidates.

v. Measure results – Companies should calculate the success rate of employee referrals (i.e., percentage of number of candidates employed to number of candidates recommended) and inform the employees.

Why Do Organisations Prefer Internal Source?

Organisations prefer this source to external source to some extent for the following reasons:

i. Internal recruitment can be used as a technique of motivation.

ii. Morale of the employees can be improved.

iii. Suitability of the internal candidates can be judged better than the external candidates as “known devils are better than unknown angels.”

iv. Loyalty, commitment, a sense of belongingness, and security of the present employees can be enhanced.

v. Employees’ psychological needs can be met by providing an opportunity for advancement.

vi. Employees economic needs for promotion, higher income can be satisfied.

vii. Cost of selection can be minimised.

viii. Cost of training, induction, orientation, period of adaptability to the organisation can be reduced.

ix. Trade unions can be satisfied.

x. Social responsibility towards employees may be discharged.

xi. Stability of employment can be ensured.

But organisations do not excessively rely on internal source as too much consumption of even sugar tastes bitter. The excessive dependence on this source results in in-breeding, discourages flow of new blood into the organisation, organisation would become dull and back number without innovations, new ideas, excellence and expertise. Hence, organisations depend on internal source to the extent of motivating and then depend on external sources.

Advantages of Internal Sources:

1. Motivation to the Employees – Employees are motivated to perform better at work, so that they can get the reward of promotion. The use of internal sources for filling the vacant position provide the job satisfaction to the employees. Not only do the promoted employees get motivated, but the other employees also put their maximum efforts.

2. Economical – Internal sources are economical because there is no need for any formalities of advertisements, interviews, etc. It saves money as many candidates can be selected on the basis of seniority and merit.

3. Knowledge of Company – The employees are aware of the rules and policies of the company, so there is no need of orientation of such employees because they already are a part of the enterprise and have full knowledge about the working methods, rules and policies of the organisation.

4. No Reference – In the recruitment through internal sources, any reference and its verification is not required. This is because the service record of the employee is already available with the organisation.

5. Improves Morale – Internal source of recruitment improves the morale of the employees in the organisation as they are assured of better positions when the vacancies are created in the organisation. This method gives preference to the existing employees and outsiders are only provided with the opportunity when the suitable candidates are not available from within the organisation.

6. Less Time-Consuming – Recruitment through internal sources is less time-consuming as in this case the employees are internally available in the organisation and they can be immediately selected.

7. Satisfaction of Trade Unions – Using internal sources as the source of recruitment will satisfy the trade unions. This will also reduce the conflicts between the management and the trade unions.

8. Promotes Loyalty – Internal sources of recruitment promote loyalty in the organisation as when the existing employees are considered for higher positions, they feel a part and parcel of the organisation and they try to promote its interests.

Disadvantages of Internal Sources:

1. No New Entrants – In this internal source recruitment, company gets deprived of new, improved and novel skills, which outsiders may introduce. Further efficient, competent and trained outsiders will not get an opportunity for appointment.

2. Promotion of Inefficient Personnel – If seniority is taken as the basis of promotion, anyone whether efficient or inefficient may get the promotion. Further, in case of taking merit as the base, approaches play an important role. So, it is possible that really capable hands may not be chosen.

3. Not a Complete Solution – The internal sources are not capable of fulfilling all the requirements of the company and it has to depend on the external sources as well.

It is not only reasonable but wise to use internal sources, if the vacancies to be filled are within the capacity of the present employees. If the present employees are given a chance to prepare for the promotion, then this method is one of the best because it motivates the workforce.

2. External Sources:

External sources are those sources which are outside the organisational pursuits.

Organisations search for the required candidates from these sources for the following reasons:

i. The suitable candidates with skill, knowledge, talent etc., are generally available.

ii. Candidates can be selected without any pre-conceived notion or reservations.

iii. Cost of employees can be minimised because employees selected from this source are generally placed in minimum pay scale.

iv. Expertise, excellence and experience in other organisations can be easily brought into the organisation.

v. Human resources mix can be balanced with different background, experience, skill, etc.

vi. Latest knowledge, skill, innovative or creative talent can also be flowed into the organisation.

vii. Long-run benefit to the organisation in the sense that qualitative human resources can be brought.

External Sources Include:

(a) Campus Recruitment:

Different types of organisations like industries, business firms, service organisations, social or religious organisations can get inexperienced candidates of different types from various educational institutions like Colleges and Universities imparting education in Science, Commerce, Arts, Engineering and Technology, Agriculture, Medicine, Management Studies, etc., and trained candidates in different disciplines like vocational, engineering, medicine from the training institutes like Vocational Training Institutes of State Governments in various trades, National Industrial Training Institutes for Engineers, etc.

Most of the Universities and Institutes imparting technical education in various disciplines like engineering, technology, and management studies provide facilities for campus recruitment and selection. They maintain the bio-data and performance required of the candidates.

Organisations seeking to recruit the candidates from this source can directly contact the institutes either in person or by post and stimulate the candidates to apply for jobs. Most of the organisations using this source, perform the function of selection after completing recruitment in the campus of the Institute itself with a view to minimising time lapse and to securing the cream before it is attracted by some other organisations.

Campus Recruitment Techniques:

Companies realise that campus recruitment is one of the best sources for recruiting the cream of the new blood.

The techniques of campus recruitment include:

(i) Short listing the institutes based on the quality of students intake, faculty facilities and past track record.

(ii) Selecting the recruiting team carefully.

(iii) Offering the smart pay rather than high pay package.

(iv) Presenting a clear image of the company and the corporate culture.

(v) Present the company but do not over sell the company.

(vi) Getting in early. Make an early bird offer.

(vii) Focusing on career growth opportunities that the company offers to the recruits.

(viii) Include young line managers and alumni of Business School (B-school), Engineering School (E-school) etc., in the recruiting team.

(ix) Build the relationships with the faculty, administrators and students to grab them before the rivals do.

(b) Private Employment Agencies/Consultants:

Public employment agencies or consultants like ABC Consultants in India perform the recruitment functions on behalf of a client company by charging fee. Line managers are relieved from recruitment functions so that they can concentrate on their operational activities and recruitment functions is entrusted to a private agency or consultants.

But due to limitations of high cost, ineffectiveness in performance, confidential nature of this function, managements sometimes do not depend on this source. However, these agencies function effectively in the recruitment of executives. Hence, they are also called executive search agencies. Most of the organisations depend on this source for highly specialised positions and executive positions.

(c) Public Employment Exchanges:

The Government set-up Public Employment Exchanges in the country to provide information about vacancies to the candidates and to help the organisations in finding out suitable candidates. The Employment Exchange (Compulsory Notification or Vacancies) Act, 1959 makes it obligatory for public sector and private sector enterprises in India to fill certain types of vacancies through public employment exchanges. These industries have to depend on public employment exchanges for the specified vacancies.

(d) Professional Organisations:

Professional organisations or associations maintain complete bio-data of their members and provide the same to various organisations on requisition. They also act as an exchange between their members and recruiting firms in exchanging information, clarifying doubts, etc. Organisations find this source more useful to recruit the experienced and professional employees like executives, managers, engineers.

(e) Data Banks:

The management can collect the bio-data of the candidates from different sources like Employment Exchange, Educational Training Institutes, candidates, etc., and feed them in the computer. It will become another source and the company can get the particulars as and when it needs to recruit.

(f) Casual Applicants:

Depending upon the image of the organisation, its prompt response, participation of the organisation in the local activities, level of unemployment, candidates apply casually for jobs through mail or hand over the applications in Personnel Department This would be a suitable source for temporary and lower level jobs.

(g) Similar Organisations:

Generally, experienced candidates are available in organisations producing similar products or are engaged in similar business. The management can get most suitable candidates from this source. This would be the most effective source for executive positions and for newly established organisation or diversified or expanded organisations.

(h) Trade Unions:

Generally, unemployed or underemployed persons or employees seeking change in employment put a word to the trade union leaders with a view to getting suitable employment due to latter’s intimacy with management. As such the trade union leaders are aware of the availability of candidates.

In view of this fact and in order to satisfy the trade union leaders, management enquires trade unions for suitable candidates. Management decides about the sources depending upon the type of candidates needed, time lapse period, etc. It has to select the recruitment technique(s) after deciding upon source.

Advantages of External Sources:

Following are the advantages of using the external sources of recruitment:

1. Wider Choice – The area of choice increases with the use of external sources. Number of applicants is much higher in this case as compared to the internal sources of recruitment. So, management has a wider choice for selection when external sources are used.

2. Efficient and Qualified Personnel – By using the external sources of recruitment, the qualified and efficient personnel from outside are provided opportunity to show their capability.

3. New and Fresh Talent – Through external sources, latest knowledge, skills and innovations can also be flowed into the organisation. People with latest knowledge and new ideas can enter into the organisation only through the external sources of recruitment.

4. Less Favouritism – Candidates are selected without any preconceived notion. Almost all the applicants are new to the managers, so there is a less chance of partiality or favouritism.

5. Long-run Benefit – External sources provide the long-run benefit to the organisation as the qualitative human resources are brought.

Disadvantages of External Sources:

Following points highlight the disadvantages of the external sources:

1. Time-consuming – Using external sources for the recruitment is a lengthy and time- consuming process. This is because a lot of formalities are required to be fulfilled for recruiting candidates from the external sources.

2. Expensive – External sources of recruitment are considered a costly process because it requires expenditures on advertisement, training of the candidates, etc. So, this source is more expensive as compared to the internal sources of recruitment.

3. Dissatisfaction among the Existing Staff – When the existing staff is not promoted and external candidates are given opportunity for the same post, they lose trust on their superiors. They feel that they are not considered capable by their top management. So use of external sources dissatisfies the existing employees.

4. Increase in Employee or Labour Turnover – When employees see that there are no chances of their promotion, they leave the organisation as and when they get better opportunity outside. This adversely affects the goodwill and reputation of the enterprise.

5. Wrong Selection – Sometimes the external sources lead to the selection of wrong or inefficient candidates because all information is not available with the company at the time-— of recruitment and selection of the candidates.

3. Modern Sources:

A number of modern recruitment sources and techniques are being used by the corporate sector in addition to traditional sources and techniques. These sources and techniques include walk in and consult in, head-hunting, body-shopping, business alliances, and tele-recruitment.

(i) Walk-In:

The busy organisations and the rapid changing companies do not find time to perform various functions of recruitment Therefore, they advise the potential candidates to attend for an interview directly and without a prior application on a specified date, time and at a specified place. The suitable candidates from among the interviewees will be selected for appointment after screening the candidates through tests and interviews.

(ii) Consult-In:

The busy and dynamic companies encourage the potential job seekers to approach them personally and consult them regarding the jobs. The companies select the suitable candidates from among such candidates through the selection process.

(iii) Head-Hunting:

The companies request the professional organisations to search for the best candidates particularly for the senior executive positions. The professional organisations search for the most suitable candidates and advise the company regarding the filling up of the positions. Head-hunters are also called search consultants.

(iv) Body Shopping:

Professional organisations and the hi-tech training institutes develop a pool of human resources for the possible employment. The prospective employers contact these organisations to recruit the candidates. Otherwise, the organisations themselves approach the prospective employees to place their human resources. These professional and training institutions are called body shoppers and these activities are known as body shopping. The body shopping is used mostly for computer professionals.

(v) Business Alliances:

Business alliances like acquisitions, mergers, and take-overs help in getting human resources. In addition, the companies do also have alliances in sharing their human resources on ad-hoc basis.

It does mean that, the company with surplus human resources offers the services of their employees to other needy organisations.

(vi) E-Recruitment:

The technological revolution in telecommunication helped the organisations to use internet as a source of recruitment. Organisations advertise the job vacancies through the World Wide Web (www) internet. The job seekers send their applications through e-mail or internet. Alternatively, job seekers place their CVs in the world wide web/internet, which can be drawn by the prospective employers depending upon their requirements.

E-Recruitment-Rose with Thorns:

Web-based recruitment has revolutionised the recruitment process, sources and techniques.

Its wonders include:

i. Candidate can view the job openings, job description, and job specification and application procedure and apply for the job on the web itself or via e-mail.

ii. The web itself screens the candidates’ basic qualifications, experience and skills and short lists the candidates in the preliminary short listing and communicates to both successful as unsuccessful candidates.

iii. Then, the HR manager electronically screens candidates’ and the successful candidates are directed to a special website for online skill assessment and conducts background classes over internet.

iv. The successful candidates are interviewed via videoconferencing and the further successful candidates receive the employment offers via e-mail.

These developments drastically reduced the time and costs involved in the recruitment process, but a number of risks are associated in the process including legal issues.

Therefore, the following guidelines are provided to the HR managers for consideration:

i. Don’t inadvertently screen out diverse candidates – The preliminary screening by web results in elimination of some qualified candidates as the screening software searches for certain words or phrases. So check the eliminated applications manually also.

ii. Use appropriate mode to communicate job openings – If the targeted candidates are young people, use web-based mode. Use traditional modes, if the targeted candidates are old as some of the older people may not be on-line.

iii. Provide the facility for tracking the application on-line – Maintain proper record and tracking facility in order to provide the same to the candidates who apply on-line.

iv. Make E-mail communication serious – Communicate only necessary information, rather ) than overloading the candidates with unnecessary information.

How to Recruit Employees? – 2 Main Types of Recruitment Tests: Written and Oral Examination

There are two main types of personnel recruit­ment tests, namely:

(1) Written examination

(2) Oral examination

(1) Written Examination:

Written tests may be either essay-type or objective types in form. Essay type question examine the power and clarity of expression and the standard of logical thinking of the candidate. The objective type questions tests the general knowledge and speed of thinking of the candidate. Both types are employed in the recruitment process.

There are four types of written tests:

I. The ability tests

II. Aptitude tests

III. Achievement tests

IV. Personality tests

I. The Ability Test:

The ability test may be of short answer or essay answer type. Both these tests judge the general mental caliber of the candidate, his memory, degree of reaction to problems etc. Besides, testing the general ability of the candidates, devices have been devised by experts to test the specific traits of mind.

These are:

(i) General intelligence test- It measures mind through the group tests of mental ability.

(ii) Unit trait system- L. L. Thruston discovered this system. It identifies unit traits of intelligence, such as perception, verbal comprehension, word fluency, memory, reasoning ability, deduction etc.

(iii) Social intelligence test- Thurston and his associates devised this test. It measures the quality of social intelligence that is the quality of adaptability to all kinds of new situation and ability to influence people.

(iv) Administrative ability- It is known as the Gottshchald test and it tests the administrative ability.

Some of the qualities tested are:

(a) Ability to appraise people,

(b) Capacity to take prompt decision, and

(c) Social behaviour.

(v) Mechanical Intelligence test- This test is used in skilled traders and positions which involve use of clerical machines. The assembly tests of Minnesota Mechanical ability are made use of for this purpose.

II. Aptitude Tests:

Such type of tests are used for recruitment in the defence and other technical services in the UK and the USA which are meant to test the particular aptitude of the students towards that job.

III. Achievement Tests:

The academic examin­ations are termed as achievement tests. Certain basic academic qualification is required for competing in the examinations. A B. A. degree enables a candidate to compete for I.A.S. and other allied services examinations.

IV. Personality Test:

Various kinds of complex personality tests have been devised in western countries to discover all possible traits of human personality, such as the laired personality. Inventory was devised to measure emotion and temperament, Bern Renter Flanagen personality inventory to test confidence and sociability and Alloport A S. Test to test qualities of ascendance and submission.

(2) Oral Interview:

The written examination does not reveal the true personality of the candidates. To properly gauge the qualities of initiative, presence of mind, power of decision etc., which are vital in a successful administrator, resort is made to oral tests or interview. This interview is made to test the candidate’s alertness, intelligence, presence of mind and general personality.

In recent years procedures of recruitment and training of personnel have been the subject of serious debate and discussion in many countries.

How to Recruit Employees? – Methods of Recruitment as Summarized by Dunn and Stephens (Direct, Indirect and Third Party Method)

Dunn and Stephens, 1972 summaries the methods or techniques of recruitment into three categories:

1. Direct,

2. Indirect and

3. Third Party

1. Direct Method:

Campus recruitment is most widely acceptable example of direct recruitment of candidates. In this method the recruiters visit educational Institutions such as IIMs, IITs, Universities and others management institutions and their placement centres. The placement centres provide opportunities for students and recruiters to meet and discuss potential hiring because placement arranged through the institutions enhance their reputation and credibility.

The recruiters take the opportunity to distribute brochures and other literature of organization to candidates and build organization image. A good relationship between placement officials and organization is necessary to obtain effective results. Depending upon the nature of policy of organizations, the many organizations issue appointment letters after conducting interviews in the campus and many invite selected candidates to visit the organization for final interviews.

The main advantage of campus interview is that to access a large number of young people at one place in less time. On the other hand the negative aspects of campus interviews is that the hiring people with no work experience.

As per R. W. Walers, 1976, the common mistakes committed by recruiters are as follows:

(i) Failure to utilize a full time professional recruiter.

(ii) The recruiter is not professionally trained in interviewing.

(iii) The recruiter does not have the authority to make decision with regard to hiring.

(iv) The actual plan visit is mishandled.

(v) The recruiter does not get involved in the development of the new employee.

Other direct methods include sending recruiters to establish exhibits at job fairs, and using mobile officers to visit to the desired places where unemployed may be contacted.

2. Indirect Method:

The most frequently used indirect method of recruitment is advertisement in publications such as newspapers, magazines, trade and professional journals or broadcasting from radio and television. The advertisement should be specific and include sufficient details such as job responsibilities, compensation package and career prospects in the organization. In order to be successful, an advertisement should be carefully written so that it may draw the attention of right type of applicants and also build the image of an organization.

This method is useful when an organization wants a fairly good number of talented people. Local newspaper can be a good source of blue collar, clerical and lower level administrative positions while national level periodicals may be used for middle and top level positions.

Many organizations use the ‘blind box’ type advertisement where no identification of the organization is given. The Post Office Box Number acting as an agent between applicants and organization. Another method of advertisement is used as notice board placed at the gates of the organisation.

3. Third Party Methods:

The following sources are involved in third party methods:

(i) Employment Exchanges:

The organizations are expected to notify their vacancies in the specific Employment Exchanges and job seekers get information from them about the types of jobs that are referred to by employers.

(ii) Employment Agencies:

An employment agency is an organization that assists organizations in recruiting employees and, at the same time, aids individuals in their attempt to locate jobs. They maintains lists of qualified applicants and supplies to employers willing to hire people. They also perform recruitment and selection functions for the employer and charge a fee.

(iii) Employee Referrals:

Many organizations have found that their employees can assist in the recruitment process. Employees may actively solicit applications from their friends and associates. This method suffers from a serious defect that it encourages nepotism.

(iv) Internet Recruiting:

In recent years the internet is playing an important role in recruitment. It advertises jobs and serves as a place to locate jobs applicants. The website offers a fast convenient and cost effective means for job applicants to submit their resume through Internet. The organizations believe that the internet helps to attract better quality and broad range of applicants. The internet recruiting is cheaper because it reduces costs of newspaper advertisements and workload for the HR department.

In short, the HR manager must be in close touch with these different sources and use them in accordance with his needs. To avoid surplus staffs the best management policy regarding recruitment is to look first within the organization and if that source fails external recruitment must be tackled.

According to Flippo, the present tendency of most of business organization is to ‘home grow’ their executive leaders. Koontz and O’ Donnel observe that the policy should be to ‘raise’ talent rather than ‘raid’ for it.

How to Recruit Employees? Process: 7 Steps in Recruitment Process

The recruitment process starts with defining and approving vacant positions required to be filled in. The hiring manager is responsible for defining the vacant position and preparing a clear description of the job content, the requirements of the position, and necessary competencies.

The HR needs to be consulted for the content of the job description. It is equally important to describe the working and business environment, networks, and organizational entity. While defining the position, it is necessary to take into account the existing team composition and consider factors relating to how this recruitment could impact the team composition including competencies, skills, work experience, working styles, background, and diversity.

It is the hiring manager’s responsibility to obtain and document the necessary approvals to recruit for the position prior to initiating the recruitment process. After requisition approval, the hiring manager should work with the local HR to develop a recruiting plan.

There are seven major steps in the recruitment process, which have to be followed in a systematic and scientific manner, so that they become an integral part of the HRM function.

They are as under:

1. Identifying the existence of a vacancy

2. Identifying a pool of appropriate candidates

3. The selection process

4. Selection tests and interview techniques

5. The criteria for recruiting candidates

6. The job offer letter

7. Induction of selected employees.

Step # 1. Identifying a Vacancy:

The first step towards an effective recruitment process is to verify whether the organization needs a person to perform a certain task or a function. It is necessary to analyse the tasks, objectives, and benefits involved with the job. Is the work really necessary to accomplish overall goals? Can it be avoided, relocated, mechanized, or subcontracted?

What would be the consequence, if the job were not undertaken? Questions such as these need to be answered. It is important to rationalize the requirement of personnel, keeping in view the tasks required to be performed for achieving the objectives from a particular activity/department. It is pertinent to note that there are managers with inflated egos, who aspire to build an empire.

Therefore, it is imperative to analyse the financial implications of additional personnel compared to the additional or incremental benefits that would accrue to the organization. Having ensured the requirement for additional hands, one has to precisely define the duties, responsibilities, hierarchy, and grade in which the prospective candidate will be placed.

A job description is a key document in the selection and recruitment process, and must be the first to be finalized before embarking on the process of looking for an employee.

It should clearly spell out the following:

i. The job title;

ii. The location of the job, that is, department/group/division;

iii. Grade of the post;

iv. Whom an employee for a given job would be responsible to;

v. Who all would be reporting to the person occupying a particular position;

vi. Main purpose of the job;

vii. Duties and responsibilities involved; and

viii. Any special working conditions.

Job description should have an inbuilt flexibility to include any other duties that the post holder will carry out, which are within the scope, spirit, and purpose of the job.

It should help in formulating personnel specification information about the prospective candidate such as- (a) physique, health, and appearance including height, build, hearing, eyesight, health, looks, grooming, voice, or for that matter any disabilities; (b) accomplishments, which include educational qualifications, training, learning, and experience; (c) conceptual and reasoning ability, that is, knowledge base, perception, intellectual capacities, special aptitudes (speech/writing); (d) interests, intellectual, cultural, practical, physically active; (e) disposition, that is, acceptability, relationships, leadership/initiative, motivation and drive, reliability, stability/adjustment, proactively influencing; (f) circumstances such as age, plans, domestic responsibilities, mobility, domicile.

This information needs to be further classified into essential, desirable, and disqualifier categories depending upon the profile required for a particular job description.

The purpose of such a detailed diagnosis is to clarify the qualifications, skills and abilities, experience, and aptitudes expected from the prospective candidate. Thus, a job description should spell out the skills, experience, abilities, and expertise that are required to effectively perform the job.

Step # 2. Identifying a Pool of Appropriate Candidates:

The sources to identify the appropriate pool of candidates depend, to a large extent, upon the benefits that are likely to accrue to the organization after a candidate is hired. Therefore, the choice of source that has to be tapped for recruitment would depend upon the need, vis-a-vis, the cost and efficiency of various sources.

Some of the prominent sources to identify a pool of candidates from are:

i. People already known, including ex-employees and past applicants;

ii. Direct advertising;

iii. Employment agencies;

iv. Consulting and hiring firms, along with advertisements;

v. Search consultants; and

vi. Personal network for head hunting.

To identify an appropriate pool of people for the job through advertising requires two vital issues to be addressed—media to be used and construction of an advertisement.

An advertisement specifying the job description and candidate profile should include details such as a title of vacancy, salary details with breakup, brief details of the job, key details of personal specification, duration of appointment, how to obtain further information related to the vacancy, closing date for applicants, and if possible, date of interview.

Hiring an employee through recruiting agencies and consultants may be a relatively expensive channel of recruitment. However, because of their special professional competence they are able to satisfy an employer’s needs. As a customer, the organization has to decide whom to assign the task. The quality of service by the consultants depends much upon the input that the organization provides them.

Clear and explicit disclosure by the client goes a long way in getting the best out of professional consulting firms providing recruitment services. Thus, the task would basically involve identification of the right source from amongst alternative sources through agencies such as recruitment consultants, head hunters, media, advertising, and online recruitment to attract the maximum possible relevant applicants for recruitment.

Step # 3. Selection Process:

The quality and quantity of results of the efforts made through alternative sources to attract more and better candidates depends mainly upon the good marketing practices followed to market the organization. The quality of reply instructions and the transparency in terms of providing more information, as sought by the prospective candidates, generate greater trust and interest in the organization.

The simplicity and straightforwardness of the process lead people to think well of the organization. It has been found that an organization which is flexible in its approach towards interview timings, and is transparent and quick in decision-making attracts greater response from the candidates.

Step # 4. Selection Tests and Interview Techniques:

Selection is the process of choosing qualified and competent candidates suitable for the job. It is the process of evaluating the available information from various sources, so as to choose the best candidate from the available pool of applicants. It involves the exchange of accurate and dependable information between employer and job seekers.

There are various ways of gaining information about the candidate, that are used exclusively or in combination during the selection process, depending upon the nature and level of the job. These methods should be reliable, valid, cost-effective, and acceptable.

Some of the commonly used methods are— application form, bio-data; structured/unstructured interviews such as one-to-one panel, references screening; ability tests – paper based, practical, social, aptitude, intelligence; and personality tests in groups or in assessment centres.

Depending upon the nature and type of job and the level at which the vacancy exists in the organization, a decision is made about the methods to be used for conducting selection tests.

The purpose of the interview is to assess the candidate’s credentials as well as his potential, with objective reasons for rejection. An interviewer should necessarily have due qualities, competence, and knowledge to perform this task.

Therefore, the criteria for evaluation of candidates should be clearly laid down in advance and the selection committee constituting experts should necessarily examine the suitability of each candidate by using techniques that can scientifically help in assessing the knowledge, skills, competence, and above all, the attitudinal aspects of a candidate vis-a-vis the job requirements.

Step # 5. Criteria for Recruiting a Candidate:

After having gone through the tests, interviews reviewing the track records, and having obtained references without damaging the candidate’s current employment and position, one should be able to arrive at a yardstick to identify the most suitable, second best suitable candidate, and so on. Professionally-managed organizations, having scientific approach to arrive at the decision, are able to take quick and prompt decisions.

It has been found that good organizations are able to communicate the decision on the spot or immediately after the interview, giving a rationale and reason for selection or otherwise to the candidate. It is important that there is no point in selecting a candidate whom the organization cannot afford or motivate.

Step # 6. Job Offer Letter:

Once a candidate has been selected, a job offer letter has to be given to the selected candidate (s), comprising the terms and conditions of the job. This is a crucial step in the recruitment of a candidate. However, after the selected candidate accepts the stipulated terms and conditions, the offer letter becomes a contract between the two parties.

The candidate, before accepting an offer letter, should feel free to seek any information or clarification that may help him in making a decision to join or otherwise.

Step # 7. Induction of New Employees:

Induction refers to the smooth entry of new employees into their jobs and organizational culture. It is, yet another crucial part of the selection and recruitment process. It has been found that lack of emphasis on the part of the organization to induct prospective employees, costs heavily, in terms of time and money.

Inadequate and inappropriate induction has been found to be the reasons for demotivation, increased turnover, employee-employer disputes, and above all, damages to the reputation of the organization. Professionally-managed organizations have a detailed checklist to scientifically and systematically induct people into the organization, so that new employees are able to get right information from the right sources.

In the absence of proper induction, people may make assumptions or ask the wrong person that may lead to getting incomplete or incorrect information resulting in their getting dissatisfied and, in turn, quickly quitting the organization.

One of the biggest challenges facing HR managers today is recruiting and retaining employees with the right skills. Selection and recruitment is very crucial for the success of the organization.

Appointments should be made on the basis of merit, through a fair, transparent, well defined, and open selection process. Basic principles underlying the recruitment process are those of fairness, credibility, equal employment opportunity, merit, and the optimization of career prospects.