In this article we will discuss about the meaning and variants of cooperative farming society.

Meaning of Cooperative Farming Society:

When various farmers in a village pool there land together and agree to treat the pooled piece of land as one big farm for the purpose of cultivation, purchase the necessary inputs for the cultivation, and market the crops jointly, they are assumed to have formed a cooperative farming society. Such a society, for its proper working elects its office bearers on the basis of one member-one-vote.

The office bearers look after the proper cultivation of new farm that emerges after the land of various farmers has been pooled. The ownership of the land still lies with the respective members of the society and they withdraw from the society whenever they so like.

Besides land the farmers also contribute various productive assets as well as their labour for the purpose of cultivations. Whereas they get rent for their land and productive assets, they get wages, for their labour.

Variants of a Cooperative Farming Society:

A cooperative farming society can take up different forms mainly depending upon the functions which are performed cooperatively.


The following are some of the important variants of a cooperative farming society:

(a) Cooperative Joint Farming Society:

The society represents the most comprehensive type of cooperative farming society. A joint cooperative farming society comes into existence when the members pool their land and other productive assets and carry on all the pre-sowing the pooling and post harvesting functions besides the cultivation of the pooled land on cooperative basis.

It purchases various inputs from the market and arranges for the marketing of the produce. It also seeks financial assistance from outside agencies to carry on these activities.

(b) Cooperative Better Farming Society:


In cooperative better farming society, the members do not cultivate their land jointly. Each member cultivates his own land. However, they co-operate with each other for pre-sowing and post harvesting operation. For instance, they purchase various agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizers, insecticides, services of machinery etc. on cooperative basis.

They sell the crops jointly. A cooperative better farming society may also arrange for financial assistance for carrying on these activities. The members pay for the service rendered to them by the society.

(c) Cooperative Tenant Farming Society:

This is a society which purchase or leases in land from the Government or some private persons and then in turn leases out the land to its members. The members cultivate the land and pay the rent falling to their share, to the society.

The society also renders various other services to its members and charges from, its members for the service so rendered. The profits earned by the society are distributed among its members according to some agreed formula.

(d) Cooperative Collective Farming Society:


This type of society involves pooling of their land by the members on a permanent basis. A member who joins this society cannot ever withdraw his land from the society. He can only transfer his land to some other person who will now become a substitute member of the society.

The functions of this society are similar to those performed by a cooperative joint farming society. The member get their wages and profits according to the labour and land respectively contributed by them. It is obvious that such a society is formed in contravention of the general principles-of cooperative i.e. volun­tary membership with a right to withdraw from the society at any time.