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Principles of Coordination

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Everything you need to know about the principles of coordination formulated by Mary Parker Follett. Principles refer to fundamental truths on which an action is based.

In order to ensure effective co-ordination, the co-ordination should be based on certain principles.

Effective co-ordination entirely depends upon effective leadership. Co-ordination and leadership together can assure direction of corporate efforts effectively towards the predetermined objectives.

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Co-ordination is a continuous process by which managers achieve the integrated common goals. It is therefore, the responsibility of manager to establish better co-ordination.

Some of the principles of co-ordination are:-

1. Early Start 2. Personnel Contract 3. Continuity 4. Reciprocal Relationship 5. Dynamism 6. Simplified Organization

7. Self-Coordination 8. Clear-Cut Objectives 9. Clear Definition of Authority ad Responsibility 10. Effective Communication 11. Effective Supervision.


11 Principles of Coordination in Management: Early Start, Personnel Contract, Continuity, Dynamism and a Few Others

Principles of Coordination in Management – Formulated by Mary Parker Follett

Mary Parker Follett has formulated the following set of principles for effective co-ordination:

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1. Early Beginning:

The first principle is that co­ordination must be attempted and arranged in the early stage of the management process and policy making. It may be impossible to secure co – ordination in an enterprise if not started at the planning stage. Early coordination improves the quality of plans and influences timely decisions on matters of policy.

2. Direct Personal Contact:

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Direct personal contact removes misunderstanding and conflict between departments or between personnel. It involves direct face to face communication, personal discussion, settlement of differences, exchanges of ideas between the personnel.

3. Reciprocal Relationship of Factors:

No department can work in isolation from the other departments. That is, when purchase department works with sales department, which in turn works with finance department and personnel department, each of the four departments finds itself influenced by the other department in the total situation.

Similarly, in a group every person influences all others and is in turn influenced by others. When reciprocal relationships are maintained cordially, adequate coordination can be secured in an enterprise.

4. Continuous Process:

Coordination is a continuous process and must go on all the time. In contrast to the principle of continuity, difference of opinions and information gap may appear and misunderstanding in inter departmental operations may crop up in the absence of coordination. By keeping the process of coordination as a continuous flow of information, sound coordination can be ensured in an enterprise.

5. Action Plan is the Fundamental Element of All Coordination Activities:

Most individual human interactions are modeled by an action plan in which a performer delivers a condition satisfying a customer. The action plan has a requester, performer and four time segments culminating in request, promise, delivery, and acceptance. Each of the four segments can be linked to further action plans that respond to requests from components of the segment. The resulting network of action plan is called an action process or workflow.

6. Coordination Tasks Can Be Delegated to Computational Processes:

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Humans delegate tasks to agents by designing computational processes to perform the tasks.

There are three categories of coordination systems according to the amount of task delegation:

i. Human-human with computer assistance- all interaction is between humans, but computational processes track their joint progress states to assist them to complete tasks. (Known as Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW.)

ii. Human-computer- the performer role is delegated to a computational system. Humans interact with the system through an interaction language and interaction interface. (Known as Human Computer Interaction, HCI.)

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iii. Computer-computer- all requester and performer roles are delegated to computational processes. All interactions are carried out automatically between machines. (Known as Concurrency Control, CC)

7. Coordination is a Solution to the Concurrency Control Problems of Arbitration, Synchronization, Serialization, Determinacy, and Deadlock:

Concurrency means that tasks can be executed in parallel. A concurrent system is a set of tasks, some of which are- ordered and the rest concurrent (unordered). Ordered tasks can never be executed at the same time; concurrent tasks can. Arbitration arises when a task is required to select only one of two (or more) potentially simultaneous activities, deferring action on the unselected ones without losing them.

A complete solution to the arbitration problem possible only if the tasks involved can wait for the selection to be made. If there is a deadline, there is a probability of arbitration failure. The solutions to all the following problems depend on a satisfactory solution to arbitration in the underlying system. Synchronization is a requirement that a task cannot proceed past a point until another task is completed.


Principles of Coordination in Management – Unity of Command, Early Beginning, Scalar Chain, Continuity, Span of Management, Direct Contact, Reciprocity and Dynamism

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Principles refer to fundamental truths on which an action is based.

The following principles help in applying the various techniques of coordination:

1. Unity of Command:

Unity of command means one boss for one subordinate. It will be difficult to achieve coordination if one individual has to report to more than one boss. Unity of command helps in coordinating the activities of individuals and departments.

2. Early Beginning:

It follows the principle of earlier the better. Managers should initiate efforts to coordinate organisational activities right from the planning stage. If plans are implemented without coordination in mind, it will become difficult to coordinate the organisational activities at later stages. Well begun is half done?

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Framing objectives and policies through participative decision-making are the strengths to achieve coordination. Participation allows members to know the importance of everyone in the organisation. It reduces conflicts, promotes commitment and harmony to create an environment conducive for coordinated efforts directed towards organisational goals.

3. Scalar Chain:

It refers to chain or link between top managers and lower managers. It is the hierarchy of levels where information and instructions flow from top to bottom and suggestions and complaints flow from bottom to top. This chain facilitates coordination as top managers pass orders and instructions down the chain which are necessary for subordinates to work efficiently.

Subordinates also pass upwards only those suggestions and complaints, which they feel should be brought to the notice of top managers through middle level managers. Passing of only necessary information facilitates coordination amongst various levels. Scalar chain, thus, facilitates coordination.

4. Continuity:

Coordination is a continuous process. It must be continuously carried out at all levels in every department. It starts the moment an organisation comes into existence and continues till the organisation exists. Coordination is not an option. It is the inevitable force that binds all organisational members and resources together and, thus, is the backbone of organisational success.

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5. Span of Management:

It refer to the number of subordinates that a manager can manage effectively. It is important to place only as many subordinates under the direction of one manager as can be effectively managed by him. It affects the manager’s ability to coordinate the activities of subordinates working under him. Large number of subordinates under one manager can make coordination amongst their efforts difficult.

6. Direct Contact:

Direct or personal contact between managers and subordinates can achieve better coordination than indirect or impersonal contact. Face-to-face interaction amongst people of different levels or same level in different departments promotes understanding of information and thoughts. This facilitates effective communication and mutual understanding and through it, effective coordination.

7. Reciprocity:

It refers to interdependence of activities. Production and sales department, for example, are inter-dependent. The more one sells, the more one needs to produce. The more one produces, the more one attempts to sell what is produced. The nature and extent to which organisational activities are dependent on each other are considered by managers when they initiate to coordinate the organisational activities. More the inter­dependence amongst organisational activities, more is the need for coordination amongst them.

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8. Dynamism:

There are no fixed and rigid rules for coordination. Changes in organisational environment necessitate changes in the techniques of coordination. It is, thus, a dynamic and not static concept.


Principles of Coordination in Management  – Principle of Early Beginning, Principle of Direct Contact, Principle of Reciprocity and Principle of Continuity

Mary Parker Follett has laid down the following principles of co-ordination with the help of which an executive ensures integrated efforts in an organisation with a minimum of friction and a maximum of collaborative effectiveness.

(1) Principle of Early Beginning:

The success of co-ordinating activities depends on the beginning itself. If it has started at the early stage it proves fruitful. Planning is the beginning of an enterprise. Co-ordination should from this very stage start functioning. Production Manager has a plan to start producing a new item for which he requires a plant. He orders for the same. After placing the orders he informs Finance controller.

Finance Controller refuses to meet the bill as he is short of funds and funds at a short notice cannot be arranged. The order for plant has to be cancelled. Had there been co-ordination between the two in the initial stages of the plan such a situation would have never arisen.

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(2) Principle of Direct Contact:

Instead of issuing orders and instructions it is better and helpful if the co-ordinating parties meet personally and talk over the matter. This helps in mutual understanding and creates mutual confidence. Respect for each other develops between the personnels at the same level and also at different levels which is helpful in future also.

(3) Principle of Reciprocity:

A situation can be easily visualised where all elements are influenced by doing and undoing of each one. For Example – in an industrial undertaking production department is as much linked with purchase department as the personnel department as the personnel department is or vice-versa. Principles of reciprocity help in co-ordinating the efforts of each other thus help in establishing an effective and harmonious relations between each other.

(4) Principle of Continuity:

Co-ordination is a continuous process. It goes on relentlessly from the very beginning. If anywhere it either stops or slackens a derailment is the only possibility which in that case will harm the whole enterprise.


Principles of Coordination in Management – Early Start, Personnel Contact, Continuity, Reciprocal Relationship, Dynamism, Simplified Organisation and a Few Others

In order to ensure effective co-ordination, the co-ordination should be based on certain principles.

They are briefly explained below:

1. Early Start:

The co-ordination should be started even from the planning function of management. The management should prepare the plan after consulting the concerned officials. By this, the preparation of a plan and its implementation will be very easy for the management. Then, there will be no resistance from the concerned officials.

2. Personnel Contract:

Oral communication brings two persons very close. It means, there is a possibility of personal contact. An agreement may be arrived on methods, actions and achievement of objectives through personal contact. Ideas, views, opinions, recommendations, feelings, etc., are conveyed to the receivers effectively through personal contact.

Personal contact avoids controversy and misunderstanding. Thus, co-ordination is achieved through co-operation and mutual understanding and not by force, order or coercion.

3. Continuity:

Co-ordination is a must so long as the organisation continues to function. Co-ordination is the key stone of the organisational structure. So, co-ordination starts with planning and ends with controlling.

4. Reciprocal Relationship:

This principle states that all factors in a situation are reciprocally related. Each factor influences other factors and are influenced by the other factors. Thus, the action of one employee influences the action of other employees and vice versa. So, there is a need for integration of all efforts, actions and interests.

5. Dynamism:

The external environment of business influences the internal activities of the business. Besides, the internal activities and decisions are changed according to the circumstances prevailing. So, co-ordination is modified according to the external environment and internal actions and decisions. Co-ordination should be a dynamic one.

6. Simplified Organisation:

Simplified organisation also facilitates effective co­ordination. The management can arrange the departments in such a way, to get better co­ordination among the departmental heads. If two sections or two department’s functions are most similar in nature, these two departments are put under one executive in charge. This facilitates to get better co-ordination.

Somebody recommended that if there are dissimilar functions between two sections or departments, these two departments should be handed over to only one executive. This will also ensure better co-ordination between the two departments. According to Keith and Gabelin, “even though certain activities are dissimilar, management may put them under a single executive because they need close co-ordination”.

7. Self-Coordination:

According to this principle, the function of one department affects other departments and in turn, is affected by the functions of other departments. The same department modifies its functions in such a manner that it may affect other departments favourably. In this way, co-ordination is achieved. There is a need for effective communication to get self-co-ordination. Effective communication facilitates a department to appraise the functions of another department.

8. Clear-Cut Objectives:

The departmental heads should know clearly the objectives of the organisation. So, the management must take necessary steps to explain the objectives to the departmental heads. This is very useful in achieving the common objectives of the organisation collectively. Clear-cut objectives and clear explanation of objectives are bound to produce uniformity in action.

9. Clear Definition of Authority and Responsibility:

The management should clearly define the authority and responsibility of each individual and of each department. This will facilitate effective co-ordination in an organisation. Besides, it will reduce conflicts among the individuals. The department manager has enough authority to exercise over the subordinates who have violated the limits and other irregularities.

10. Effective Communication:

Effective communication is necessary for proper co­ordination. The individual and departmental problems can be solved with the help of co­ordination. In addition, the efforts of a staff are effectively utilised to achieve the objectives of the organisation.

11. Effective Leadership:

Effective leadership also helps in proper co-ordination. Leadership creates confidence in the minds of subordinates and increases the morale of the subordinates.

12. Effective Supervision:

Top executives should supervise the work of subordinates to ensure successful performance as planned. Top executives may entrust this type of work to the supervisors. When, the top executives find any deviation, they may take immediate steps to correct them with the help of supervisors. So, there is a need for co-ordination between the supervisors and the top executives. Thus, supervisors play an important role in co-ordination.


Principles of Coordination in Management – According to Marry Parker Follet: Principle of Early Beginning, Principle of Reciprocal Relationship and Principle of Continuity

Mary Parker Follet has pointed out four broad principles for achieving effective coordination which are as follows:

1. Principle of Early Beginning:

Coordination can be achieved more easily at the early stages of planning and policy making. It becomes difficult to secure coordination at the execution stage. Coordination should be started from the very beginning of the planning process. Coordination can be sought effectively from organizational members at the time of policy-formulation and objective-setting.

For example, if the pro­duction manager plans to produce something, he should consult all the departmental heads (i.e., purchase, finance, stores, marketing, etc.) at the beginning. All the departments then can extend cooperation and har­monize their activities. If the production manager suddenly approaches them, it will be difficult for them to harmonize their activities. Therefore, the lack of coordination at the early stage may result in business failure.

2. Principle of Direct Personal Contact:

Coordination is best achieved by direct personal contacts among the responsible persons of an enterprise. Direct contact helps in removing misunderstandings and conflicts between individuals and departments in the organization. This helps in exchanging ideas and opinions in a better way and clarifying the reasons for conflicts more easily. It also ensures promptness in action and avoids red-tapism in the organization. Effective communication plays a vital role in direct personal contact among members of the organization.

3. Principle of Reciprocal Relationship:

This principle states that an organization is a system of interrelated elements which are closely related with each other. All the factors in a situation are reciprocally related. Each factor influences other factors and is also influenced by the other factors. So, there is a need for integration of efforts, actions, and interests of various factors. For instance, production manager is dependent on finance manager for the release of funds.

On the other hand, finance manager is also related to the production man­ager. In this way, every member of the organization maintains relationship with each other. This principle calls for the establishment of a reciprocal relationship among all important factors in a given situation.

4. Principle of Continuity:

Coordination is a never-ending function of the management. It is a continuous process. Coordination is a must so long as the organization continues to exist. Coordination can be effective only when it is a continuous activity. It is the duty of the manager to make regular efforts to achieve coor­dination constantly, so that organizational goals can be achieved effectively. This principle ensures effective coordination of all levels of management during actual operation on a continuous basis.


Principles of Coordination in Management – Principle of Direct Contact, Principle of Reciprocal Relationship, Principle of Continuity and a Few Others

Effective co-ordination entirely depends upon effective leadership. Co-ordination and leadership together can assure direction of corporate efforts effectively towards the predetermined objectives. Co-ordination is a continuous process by which managers achieve the integrated common goals. It is therefore, the responsibility of manager to establish better co-ordination.

Better and effective co­ordination, according to Mary Parker Follett, can be achieved if the following principles are adhered to:

1. Principle of Direct Contact:

Co-ordination can be best achieved by direct personal contacts among the responsible people concerned. A must for effective co-ordination, as per this principle, is direct face to face contact between important and responsible persons in the enterprise, through interpersonal, horizontal relationship. People can interact with each other by exchanging their views, ideas and face-to-face dialogue.

Personal communication is more effective than any other method. Direct contact is possible in small size organisation but in large organisation it is difficult to keep and maintain direct contact with the responsible persons. This difficulty can be removed by providing mechanical devices like telephones, fax machine, telex, e-mail etc. for the direct and effective personal communication through which better co-ordination can be achieved.

2. Principle of Achieving Co-Ordination in the Early Stages of Planning and Policy:

Co­ordination must start at the earliest stage of planning, organising, policy making and control. Departments, for which a policy is to be framed, must be consulted before hand. Secondly if any department is going to be affected by such policy, that department also should be consulted before hand. For example if the production manager plans to produce something in a particular period, he must contact all departmental heads viz. purchase, stores, finance, sales and marketing, plant engineer etc.

All the departments then can co-operate, synchronize and harmonize their activities. Lack of co-ordination in the early stage may result in business failure. Therefore the general manager should try to co-ordinate all departmental activities right from the beginning of the management process.

3. Principle of Reciprocal Relationship:

Co-ordination must involve a reciprocal relationship i.e. willingness to give and take among the persons and activities concerned. This principle indicates that all factors in a situation are reciprocally related. For instance, financial manager has reciprocal relationship with production manager. Production manager, in turn, co- ordinates with sales and marketing manager and other managers.

All the above managers find themselves influenced by all people in the total situation. In simple words every member of the organisation maintains relationship with each other in the total situation. All the aspects or part are influenced by other aspects or parts.

4. Principle of Continuity:

Co-ordination is a continuous process. It is a never ending function of management. If it stops somewhere, it will be harmful for the entire business organisation. Hence adequate care must be taken by the top executives regarding the continuity of co-ordination of various activities etc.

Adoption of the above mentioned principles ensures effective co-ordination at all levels of management during actual operation and supervision of business activities. Along with the above principles there must be democratic participative management as well as clear-cut and careful delegation of authority.

There should not be any overlapping of irresponsibility to achieve vertical and horizontal co-ordination and for prevention of conflicts. Co-ordination helps in anticipating the problems and measures to avoid them can be taken. All these principles are required to be kept in mind while performing co-ordination function.


Principles of Coordination in Management – Directness, Early Start, Continuity and Dynamism

Successful co-ordination is based on certain principles, such as:

(i) Directness:

Co-ordination works best direct personal touch. Certain instruction or orders can be properly explained if there is a direct approach. Similarly, it also enables the management to understand the various difficulties that different employees may have to face. Thus, management can improve the overall efficiency of the business enterprise.

(ii) Early Start:

The process should start with the beginning from the preparation of the plan. As soon as the enterprise is formed and proper plans are chalked out, the process of co-ordination must be developed along with the other processes of management. From the very beginning attempt should be made to create an impression on every employee that he should work in co­ordination with the other departments and perform his respective role in the interest of the enterprise.

(iii) Continuity:

It should be remembered that co-ordination is a continuous process and it should be practised in the organization so long as the enterprise exists. It is a continuous and a circular activity. Starting from planning, it runs right through and across the organizing, directing, controlling – to innovation.

(iv) Dynamism:

As business enterprise is subject to alterations, co-ordination cannot remain static or cannot confine itself to any one department with fixed responsibilities. It changes according to the decisions, times, plans, etc., but, always keeps pace with the accomplishments of the pre-planned objects. It should be noted that “good co-ordination will remove the critical points as they arise, excellent co-ordination will anticipate them and prevent their occurrence”.


Principles of Coordination in Management – Principles of Direct Contact, Principles of Early Start, Principles of Reciprocal Relationship and Principle of Continuity

Mary Parker Follett laid down the following principles of coordination:

(i) Principles of Direct Contact:

The activities of different individuals can be coordinated effectively through direct personal contacts. This helps in exchanging the opinions and ideas in a better way and clarifying the misunderstandings more easily.

(ii) Principles of Early Start:

Coordination may be achieved easily during the early stages of planning and policy-making. It becomes difficult to secure coordination at the execution stage.

(iii) Principles of Reciprocal Relationship:

The principles states that all the factors in a situation like men, material, and environment are reciprocally related. For instance, when A works with B, each finds himself influenced by the other and both are influenced by the other persons and factors in the total situation.

(iv) Principle of Continuity:

Coordination should be a continuous process starting with planning and running through the other managerial processes. It is something which must go on all the time. It should be viewed as a never-ending process and every manager should strive for it constantly.


Principles of Coordination in Management – Directness, Early Stage, Continuity, Dynamism and Integration

1. Directness:

Co-ordination must be achieved through direct personal contact. This will facilitate free exchange of ideas. Misunderstanding and conflict will also be easily removed through direct approach.

2. Early Start:

Co-ordination must be arranged from the very beginning. That is, it should start at the planning stage itself. If the different departments are made to function in a spirit of inter-dependence from the early stages, the task of adjustment becomes easier.

3. Continuity:

Co-ordination is a continuous process. It does not end in a day or a month. So long as there are different segments in an enterprise, there exists the need for constant exchange of information and for coordination of their efforts.

4. Dynamism:

Co-ordination should not be rigidified. Changes in business situations and in external as well as internal environments take place constantly. As Koontz and O’ Donnel put in, “good co-ordination will remove critical points as they arise: excellent coordination will anticipate them and prevent their occurrence”.

5. Integration:

Reciprocal relationship among the different segments must be established for integration of all efforts, actions and interests towards the common purpose of the organization.


Principles of Coordination in Management – Early Beginning, Direct Personal Touch, Continuity, Reciprocal Relations and Self Coordination

For the effective coordination, Mary Parker Follett introduced the following principals:

1. Early Beginning:

The coordination process should take place in the early stage of the planning and policy formulation. This improves the plans and it is easy to start coordination in beginning due to avoid the piling of problems. One another benefit is that the people in the early stage become habitual to coordinate the things.

2. Direct Personal Touch:

To create mutual understanding and confidence among the peoples of the organisation, direct personal touch or interpersonal relationship is essential. This ensures better understanding and mutual cooperation between the people of the organisation.

3. Continuity:

Coordination takes place continuously in the organisation. This is not a onetime affair. Coordination must go on through the entire process of management. It takes place from planning to controlling.

4. Reciprocal Relations:

All activities of the organisation are interrelated and interdependent. The actions or decisions regarding organisation affect not only the individual but whole organisation. Therefore, they must be considered before taking such decision or action.

5. Self Coordination:

This principal was introduced by brown. According to this principal, a particular department affects other departments and is in turn affected by them. The effective communication is required to appreciate the functioning of related departments. A favorable climate and voluntary efforts are required for self-coordination.


Principles of Coordination in Management – With Some Additional Principles of Coordination

Mary Parker Follett gave four main Principles of Coordination. These four principles of co­ordination are called are Follett’s Principles of Coordination. These four principles must be followed to make co-ordination effective.

Mary P. Follett’s four main principles of coordination are discussed below:

1. Principle of Early Stage:

According to this principle, coordination must start at an early stage in the management process. It must start during the planning stage. This will result in making the best plans and implementing these plans with success. If coordination is started early only then all the management functions will be performed successfully. Thus by initiating proper coordination the organisation will achieve all its objectives easily and quickly.

2. Principle of Continuity:

According to this principle, coordination must be a continuous process. It must not be a one-time activity. The process of coordination must begin when the organisation starts, and it must continue until the organisation exists. Coordination must be done continuously during the management process. It must be done during planning, organising, directing and controlling.

3. Principle of Direct Contact:

According to this principle, all managers must have a Direct Contact with their subordinates. This will result in good relations between the manager and their subordinates. This is because direct contact helps to avoid misunderstandings, misinterpretations and disputes between managers and subordinates. It enables the managers to coordinate all the different activities of their subordinates effectively and efficiently.

4. Principle of Reciprocal Relations:

The decisions and actions of all the people (i.e. of all managers and employees) and departments of the organisation are inter-related. So, the decisions and actions of one person or department will affect all other persons and departments in the organisation.

Therefore, before taking any decision or action all managers must first find out the effect of that decision or action on other persons and departments in the organisation. This is called the Principle of Reciprocal Relations. Co­ordination will be successful only if this principle is followed properly.

Additional Principles of Coordination:

After Mary Parker Follett, modern management experts have extended her list by adding four additional principles of coordination.

These additional or supplementary principles of coordination are explained as follows:

1. Principle of Effective Communication:

Co-ordination will be successful only in the presence of an effective communication. Good communication must be present between all departments, within employees themselves and even between managers and their subordinates. All communication barriers and gaps must be avoided and fixed. Good communication helps to avoid misunderstandings in the organization. This overall helps in coordination.

2. Principle of Mutual Respect:

Coordination will be successful only if there exist a mutual respect throughout the organization. All managers working at different levels (top, middle or lower) must respect each other. Similarly, all employees must show a friendly attitude and should respect each other during interactions.

There must also exist a feeling of brotherly hood among managers and employees. The managers must respect the feelings and emotions of the employees. On the other hand, employees too must understand and acknowledge their bosses. Without mutual respect, coordination may not survive, and it will eventually fail.

3. Principle of Clarity of Objectives:

Co-ordination will be successful only if the organisation has set its clear objectives. Everyone in the organisation must know the objectives very clearly. No one must have any doubts about the objectives of the organisation. Clear objectives can be achieved easily and quickly.

4. Principle of Scalar Chain:

Scalar Chain is a line of authority. This line joins all the members (managers and employees) from top to bottom. Every member must know who his superior. He must also know who his subordinate. Scalar Chain is necessary for good communication. Scalar Chain must not be broken in norm circumstances. However, if quick action is necessary, then this chain can be broken. This is done using “Gang Plank” / “Bridge”/”Direct Contact”.

Scalar Chain is shown in diagram below with Gang plank as dotted line BK.

The Scalar Chain is shown by a double ladder E to A and E to L. E is the head of the organisation. D and I are the next level, and so on. If quick action is necessary, then a “Gang Plank” “BK” is made. Now B and K can contact each other directly but they should inform C and J about their decisions.


Principles of Coordination in Management – 4 Principles According to Mary Parker Follett: Direct Contact, Early Start, Reciprocal Relationship and Continuity

Mary Parker Follett has given 4 principles for effective co-ordination:

1. Direct Contact – Co-ordination is best achieved through direct personal contact among the people. To convey ideas, feelings and information, direct communication is the most effective way. Face to face meetings and discussions helps to clear doubts and removes misunderstandings.

2. Early Start – Co-ordination can be easily achieved in the early stages of planning and policy making. Integration of efforts becomes easy by the mutual consultation and participation otherwise it is difficult in the execution of work.

3. Reciprocal Relationship – States that all factors in a given situation are reciprocally related for example-in a group.

4. Continuity – Co-ordination is a continuous process, it cannot be left to chance but management strives continuously for maintaining proper balance among different elements. Sound co­ordination is not fire-fighting but anticipating in advance the conflicts and preventing their occurrence.


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