The following points highlight the top eight measures adopted by government to improve Indian farming. The measures are: 1. Land Reforms 2. Co-Operative Farming 3. Price Incentives 4. Social Incentives 5. Subsidies 6. Agricultural Marketing 7. Agricultural Research 8. Publicity.

Measure # 1. Land Reforms:

The main land reforms included abolition of zamindari system, tenancy reforms granting protection and security to the tenants, imposition of ceilings on landholdings and distributing surplus land among the land poor people as a means of securing economic equality, consolidation of small and scattered holdings to provide farmer with a good sized holding, prevention of further subdivision and fragmentation. These land reforms intended to introduce a measure of social justice and to remove impediments to farm productivity.

Measure # 2. Co-Operative Farming:

To remove the disabilities of small cultivators in finance and marketing and for introducing modern techniques of farming, co-operative farming has been introduced and encouraged.

Measure # 3. Price Incentives:

The Govt. has provided price incentives to the farmers. In the taxation of price of farm goods, the chief objectives are:


(i) To assure the farmer reasonable prices to induce him to undertake investments designed to increase farm productivity,

(ii) To make available to the consumers food grains at reasonable prices. The aim is to ensure the fulfillment of plan targets in respect of production, consumption, industrial requirement and exports. Ceiling prices are fixed for the benefit of consumer and floor prices fixed for the benefit of producer.

Measure # 4. Social Incentives:

Awards, distinctions and social recognition have been conferred on the cultivators who showed outstanding performance in the production of crop, milk, fruit, meat and eggs etc.

Measure # 5. Subsidies:

Our Central Govt. has granted subsidies to State Govts, for helping cultivators.


These subsidies fall into 2 categories:

(i) For developing infrastructure for planned agricultural growth and for projects, and

(ii) For directly benefiting the individual farmers.

Under the former category, the Central Govt. gives 75% of the non­recurring expenditure on farm education and training and 50% on research surveys, soil conservation, organisation etc.


Under the latter category, subsidies are given as 25% on surface wells, renovation of the tanks, fertilizer, 25% on minor and co-operative irrigation schemes, construction of tube wells, etc., and 25% on supply of pesticides and improved implements. Subsidies are also granted on better seeds.

Measure # 6. Agricultural Marketing:

The policy of the govt. has been directed to:

(i) The regulation of markets, and market practices,

(ii) Grading and marketing,

(iii) Market research and

(iv) Training of personnel in agricultural marketing.

The object has been to assure to the cultivators a reasonable return and to promote efficient marketing so that marketing costs are reduced.

Measure # 7. Agricultural Research:

Since research is taken to be the backbone of development, the govt. is promoting agricultural research in the various research institutes like Pusa Research Institute, universities and colleges.

The scientific panel attached to the Ministry of Food and Agriculture has shown that the present yields can be raised three or four times. As a result of successful research, high-yielding varieties like the Mexican wheat have already been introduced over large areas and high-yielding varieties for other main crops are being, followed.

Measure # 8. Publicity:


All sorts of publicity press, radio, cinema etc., are used to encourage scientific farming. The object is to give new confidence to the farming sector for progress.


No objection can be taken to these measures. Really they are in the right direction. But they have failed to attain objective they had in view. The failure may be attributed to the piece-meal and uncoordinated land legislation, dilatory and halting Govt. policy, legal flaws and non- implementation of land reforms.