Read this article to learn about the most frequently asked questions on Indian Agriculture.

Q.1. How far is it true that the Indian economy is an agrarian economy?

Ans. Occupational pattern and the contribution of agricultural sector towards national income indicate India’s economy as an agrarian one.

According to the 2001 census, of the total work force, 64 p.c. people were engaged in the agricultural sector and the rest in the secondary, and tertiary sectors.


During 2007-08, agriculture contributed nearly 19.4 p.c. of our national income. In these senses, Indian economy is an agrarian one.

Q.2. Mention the causes of low agricultural productivity in India.

Ans. Following factors are responsible for the low productivity in Indian agriculture:

Absence of adequate irrigation facilities, surplus agricultural labour whose marginal products are zero or negative, inadequate use of high-yielding varieties of seeds, chemical fertilisers, etc., use of old and hackneyed methods of production, inadequate use of non-farm services like finance, marketing, etc., small and fragmented land holding; reactionary land tenure system; etc.


Q. 3. What measures would you recommend for improving agricultural productivity in India?

Ans. Following measures may be suggested for improving India’s agricultural productivity:

Extension of artificial irrigation facilities throu­ghout the country, strengthening of the flood controlling measures, extensive use of HYV seeds, fertiliser, modern techniques of production, fallow land to be made cultivable; prevention of land erosion, liberal grant of loans to farmers, etc. Above all, structural and institutional changes must have to be made.

Q.4. Name the principal objectives of land reforms in India.


Ans. There are two fundamental objectives of land reform measures in India: Firstly, country’s agrarian structure has to be rearranged in such a way that the relations between land and labour promote the growth of agriculture.

Secondly, all feudalistic and semi-feudalistic elements of exploitation and social injustice must have to be eliminated. In sum, growth and social justice are the basic objectives of our land reform policies.

Q.5. Mention the institutional changes covered by the concept of land reforms.


What are the basic steps to land reforms in India?

Ans. The concept of land reform refers to changes in institutional factors which envisage distribution of land to the actual tillers of the soil, improve the size of farms, provide security of tenure and rent regulation, etc. Thus, the land reform measures are integral part of institutional reforms.

It breaks the shackles of feudal or semi- feudal agricultural structure and distributes land- asset in favour of the landless cultivating classes.

Q.6. Mention the various measures adopted under the land reforms programme in India.

Ans. To make the land reform policy a successful one, following measures were taken by the Government:


(a) Abolition of intermediaries,

(b) Tenancy reforms:

(i) Security of tenure for tenants,

(ii) Conferment of ownership on tenants, and


(iii) Regulation of rent,

(c) Ceiling on landholdings,

(d) Consolidation of scattered and fragmented land holdings, and

(e) Extension of cooperative farming.


Q.7. What is meant by green revolution?

Ans. The green revolution refers to a sudden large increase in agricultural production. The basic components of the New Agricultural Strategy are high-yielding varieties of seeds or miracle seeds, extensive application of chemical fertilisers, pesticides, etc., extension of irrigation facilities, improved agricultural machinery, etc.

Q.8. Since when has the green revolution been in operation in India?

Ans. The result of the New Agricultural Strategy of 1966-67 is the green revolution. However, some experts of the Ford Foundation of America recommended for the introduction of the New Agricultural Strategy on an experimental basis in 1960-61.

Q.9. What is khariff crop?

Ans. Agricultural practices in India are classified on the basis of season as khariff crop and rabi crop. Khariff crop refers to that crop which is harvested during the rainy season.


Q.10. What is rabi crop?

Ans. Rabi crop refers to that crop which is harvested during the winter season. Examples of rabi crops are wheat, potato, etc.

Q.11. What is subsistence farming?

Ans. Typically, Indian agriculture is based on the subsistence level. This means that farming is conducted just to meet consumption requirements of the cultivators. In other words, subsistence farming refers to that farming in which production equals consumption. No surplus food grain emerges.

Q.12. What is tenant farming?

Ans. Under tenant farming; the farming society stands as the owner of large tracts of land which is divided into small holdings and is based among the member farms against the payment of a fixed rent. Each farmer can dispose off the produce the way he likes.


Q.13. What is share cropping?

Ans. Under this, crops produced are determined in accordance with a specified norm between landowners and bargadars. The principle of share cropping will differ if the cost of cultivation is fully and/or partly borne by the landowner.

Q.14. What is operation barga?

Ans. Bargadars are often evicted from land by the landowners. To preserve their rights on land and to improve their economic position, the West Bengal Government passed laws in this direction. Under it, the sharecropper must get legal sanction from his jotedar.

This law suggests that (i) the name of the bargadars, (ii) quantum of crops produced, (iii) ‘number’ of the plot of land, etc., are to be given in the form of a receipt to the bargadar by the jotedar. This is known as ‘operation barga.

Q.15. Mention two sources of institutional credit in India.


Ans. The two sources of institutional credit provided to the agriculturists are public sector banks and cooperative banks.