The following points highlight the top sixteen minerals found in India. The minerals are: 1. Coal 2. Mineral Oil (Petroleum Crude) 3. Natural Gas 4. Iron ore 5. Manganese Ore 6. Chromite 7. Copper 8. Bauxite 9. Mica 10. Lead and Zinc 11. Gold 12. Nickel 13. Limestone 14. Gypsum 15. Sulphur and Pyrite and 16. Other Minerals.

Mineral # 1. Coal:

Coal is one of the basic minerals and one of the major sources of energy consumption in the country. The total workable reserves of coal throughout the country are estimated at 1, 96,892 million tonnes.

In India, the major coal fields are situated in Bengal, Bihar region (Raniganj, Jharia, Bokaro, Karanpur), Madhya Pradesh (Pench, Kanchan, Bisrampur, Zillmil, Singaulli, Korba), Maharashtra (Kampti), Orissa (Talcher), Andhra Pradesh (Singreni), Assam (Margherita, Lidu, Lankadaman, Makum, Nazira, Jaipur) and Meghalaya (Dainggiri, Rang Greng Giri, Bapung and Zorang).

Among all these fields, the Bengal-Bihar Coal fields alone contribute nearly 60 to 65 per cent of the total coal production of the country. India is the third largest producer of coal after China and USA.


Coal alone accounts for 40 per cent of total value of the different types of minerals produced in India. The Government of India nationalised the coalfields of the country in 1975 with the sole intention of its rational utilisation and since then the Coal India Ltd. was also established.

The total production of coal of India which was only 33 million tonnes in 1950-51 gradually increased to 94 million tonnes in 1973-74 and then to 200.9 million tonnes in 1989-90. The overall demand for coal was expected to increase to 237 million tonnes in 1989-90. The Seventh Plan had finalised the target for coal production at 226 million tonnes in the same year.

To meet this target, requirement of growth rate was estimated at 8.9 per cent during this Seventh Plan period but the actual gap between the overall demand and the production of coal was met by using pithead stocks and import of some amount of cooking coal.

In 2013-14, total production of coal has reached the level of 565.80 million tonnes and total production of coal and lignite has increased to 610.00 million tonnes, which represented a growth of 1.17 per cent over the previous year.


During 1950s, Railways were considered as the largest consumers of coal, consuming more than one third of the total consumption of coal. But later on, the consumption of coal by railways gradually declined steadily with the increasing dieselisation and electrification of railway track.

On the other side, the demand for coal arising from steel industry and for power generation has increased significantly. Moreover, with the sharp hike in oil prices, coal will have to be recognised as the prime source of energy in India till the turn of the century.

Thus, the Government of India has taken steps to reduce the consumption of oil and to increase the consumption of coal. Moreover, the Government has taken certain steps for increasing the production of coal which includes—reorganisation of old mines, introduction of up-to-date methods and techniques in the development of new mines and standardisation of plant and equipment.

Indian coal has high ash content and low calorific value. The ash content varies from 20 to 30 per cent and sometimes exceeds 40 per cent. This high ash content not only leads to wastage of transport opacity and energy, but also results in low efficiency of coal based thermal power plants and adds to air pollution through higher emission of smoke and ash disposal.


Considering our large coal reserves and high import prices of alternative fuel it is quite necessary to adopt advanced coal utilisation techniques to raise the efficiency of our coal-based thermal power plants as well as to minimise environmental damage.

Moreover, in order to encourage private sector investment in the coal sector, the Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act, 1973 was amended with effect from June 9, 1993 for operation of captive coal mines by companies engaged in the production of iron and steel, power generation and washing of coal in the private sector.

In India, the coal industry is facing certain special problems. Firstly, about two-thirds of the coal reserves in India lie too deep and their extraction is not always profitable under the present technological set up. Secondly, there is a limited reserve of good quality coal which is essential for industrial purposes.

Therefore, there lies an urgent need for the establishment of coal washeries and stowing as a method of preservation and better utilisation. Thirdly, the Indian coal Industry is also suffering from some other problems like, increase of the capital expenditure, failure to meet the increasing demand for coal in the country etc.

Thus under this present situation, proper steps must be taken for adoption of modern technology so as to achieve self-sufficiency in mining materials and to resolve all labour disputes for the early and positive improvement of the coal industry of the country.

Moreover, one of the major constraints on the profitability of the coal sector is low productivity in underground mines. This has stagnated at an output for man shift (OMS) of 0.55 tonnes for the past two decades, despite heavy investments made in mechanisation of underground mines.

The underground mines employ 80 per cent of manpower, but contribute only 30 per cent of the total output. Under this condition the productivity levels can be improved through better utilisation of existing stocks of machinery and equipment, greater flexibility in manpower development and rationalisation for the workforce.

Mineral # 2. Mineral Oil (Petroleum Crude):

Petroleum is now-a-days considered as a major source of energy and thus it is popularly known as liquid gold. Petro-chemical industries are getting their basic raw materials from mineral oil. With the substantial growth in the industrial and transportation activities, the demand for petroleum products has been increasing day by day.

Total consumption of petroleum products has increased from 5 million tonnes in 1956 to 119.6 million tonnes in 2006-2007.


Out of this total consumption only 28.4 per cent of this present consumption is met by domestic production and remaining part (i.e., 71.6 per cent) is met through import of crude oil. It is estimated that by 2015, the petroleum need of the country is likely to touch 225 million tonnes considering its growing demand.

Just after attaining independence, the total production of indigenous crude in India was meagre in quantity and thus to meet the growing demand of petroleum products the country has to depend largely on imports. In the mean time, the country had developed a petroleum use oriented industrial and transportation system which had a little justification at the point of time.

Now to meet the requirement of such a system, the Government undertook an ambitious plan for exploration of oil through the Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) and Oil India Limited (OIL). Accordingly, the ONGC and OIL were established in 1955 and 1959 respectively.

The ONGC and OIL successfully explored Crude Oil reserve both at upper Assam and Gujarat and continued their drilling operation in other areas including Bombay High. All these had led to the discovery of various oil reserves on and off shore and thus resulted in substantial increase in the production of indigenous crude.


Due to the continuous efforts of ONGC and OIL, the total initial recoverable reserves gradually increased to 172 million tonnes at the end of the Third Plan and then to 452 million tonnes in 1977 and then finally to 756 million tonnes in 2006-07.

Again the total production of crude oil which was only 0.4 million tonnes during the First Plan, gradually rose to 0.6 million tonnes in 1960 and then rapidly rose to 7 million tonnes in 1973-74 and 34.1 million tonnes in 1989-90 and then declined to 27.0 million tonnes in 1993-94 and again the production has increased to 35.19 million tonnes in 1995-96 and then again declined to 33.86 million tonnes in 1997-98 and then it again increased to 37.8 million tonnes (estimate) in 2013-2014 which was 0.26 per cent higher than that of 2010-2011.

During the Sixth and Seventh Plan, the ONGC and OIL have undertaken ambitious programmes for the exploration of oil and an outlay to the extent of Rs 8.450 crore and Rs 12,630 crore respectively were allocated for the said purpose. The Eighth Plan has approved an outlay of Rs 26,552 crore for the expansion of the petroleum sector.

All these had led to substantial increase in initial recoverable reserves of crude oil in the country. But this proved reserve of oil in India constitutes only 0.5 per cent of world oil (proved) reserves. At this present level of consumption, this proved reserves will be depleted within 15 to 20 years.


Total balance recoverable reserves of petroleum oil of India as on 1st April 2004 was about 1.6 billion tonnes, out of which the reserve of oil was 0.7 billion tonnes and oil equivalent gas was 0.9 billion tonnes. The continuous increased dependence on imported crude has led to focused attention on energy security.

The New Exploration Licensing Polity (NELP), which was approved in 1997 and became effective in February 1999, appears to be bearing good dividends. In the first four rounds of NELP, production sharing contracts, for 90 exploration blocks have been signed, and 19 discoveries have already been made so far in Cambay onshore, North East Coast and Krishna-Godavari deep water areas.

Of these, North Surat and Bhima fields in Cambay onshore block have been under production since May, 2004 and November, 2004 respectively.

Significantly, the reserves of gas, which is an environment friendly fuel, have gone up over 50 per cent in last 2 to 3 years due to substantial gas finds in Krishna-Godavari deep water as well as Cambay offshore. The fifth round of NELP was launched in New Delhi on January 4, 2005.

Since operationalising the New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP) in 1999, 46 oil and gas discoveries have been made by private / joint venture (JV) companies in 13 blocks as on 1st April, 2007, which have added more than 600 MT of oil equivalent hydrocarbon reserves.

As on April 1, 2007 the investment made by the Indian and foreign companies was US $ 3,887 million, out of which 30 per cent was by the national oil companies, 61.1 per cent by the Indian private companies and the remaining 8.9 per cent by foreign companies.


At present, after concluding six rounds of NELP, 162 production sharing contracts have already been signed and area under exploration has increased four times, which covers 44 per cent of Indian sedimentary basis.

The problem of refining crude oil became acute in India with the exploration of oil reserves in new areas and with the increase in the production and import of crude oil to meet the requirement of steadily rising oil consumption. Till 1962, there was no public sector refinery in India and before that Digboi refinery was functioning in the private sector.

The first public sector refinery was established at Noonmati near Guwahati (Assam). After that the second and third public sector refineries were established at Barauni and Koili. Later on, four more refineries were gradually established at Cochin, Haldia, Mathura and Bongaigaon.

At present we have 19 refineries in India. With the establishment of these 19 refineries in India for meeting the requirements of rising consumption of petroleum products, the annual oil refining capacity in India rose from 0.25 million tonnes during the First Plan to 27.5 million tonnes in 1979-80.

This refining capacity further rose to 36.66 million tonnes in 1982-83 and then to 45.6 million tonnes in 1984-85. As on 1st April 2014, the total installed refining capacity of the 21 refineries per annum stood at 215.0 million tonnes which is set to increase to 238 million tonnes in 2015-16. In 2013-2014, total refinery output in India was 220.8 million tonnes.

In addition, 3 more refineries are under construction, adding capacity of 24 million tonnes.


To accelerate the domestic production of oil and gas, the Government has offered discovered medium- sized oil and gas fields for the development under joint venture arrangement with 40 per cent participating interest for national oil companies, including small sized fields which have been awarded to private companies.

Government has so far awarded only few fields for development. An investment of about US $ 1.8 billion is involved in the exploration and development of these fields and blocks.

Mineral # 3. Natural Gas:

India is also well blessed by nature in respect of natural gas. ONGC and OIL are taking necessary steps for the exploration of gas reserves in India. In 2006-07, the net balance recoverable reserves of gas (free and associated) were estimated at about 1090 billion cubic metres.

The proportion of gas reserves in India to the world gas reserves was estimated at only 0.5 per cent. In India, the total production of natural gas was 7.23 billion cubic metres in 1984-85 and then it finally rose to 31.75 billion cubic metres in 2006- 2007.

Moreover, as the 0.95 billion cubic metres of gas was flared up thus the net production of gas was estimated at 30.8 billion cubic metres. Huge reserves of natural gas are mostly available in South Basin of West Coast of India, Assam, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Tanot in Jaisalmer basin of Rajastan and also ill the Bombay High region.

By 2011-2012, the total production of natural gas was 52.2 billion cubic metres. ONGC has recently made a huge gas find in Bay of Bengal with initial estimated reserve of 21 trillion cubic feet.


The huge resource potential in the form of natural gas was not properly utilised from the early part of our development process. In 1981, total amount of natural gas utilised in India was only 1,545 million cubic metres and out of which Assam’s utilisation of natural gas accounts for 59.8 per cent the total utilisation of the country.

Considering these huge potentialities and also considering the present oil scenario, more importance should be laid on substitution of natural gas for oil products. Thus effective plans must be devised by the proper authority for the use of natural gas in more wider areas. Natural gas can replace naphtha and furnace oil in fertilizer production and it can also be successfully used in power generation.

In Assam, Namrup Fertilizer Plant and Namrup Gas Thermal Power Project are being successfully run by natural gas. More gas- based power projects are being set up in the north-eastern states like Tripura and Arunachal Pradesh. Efforts are on for using the natural gas available in the Bombay High region. Production of gas from South Basin Gas Field has already started since 1988.

In 1994-95, total utilisation of natural gas in the country was 18.3 billion cubic metres (BCM). Gas-based power projects have certain advantages. “The advantages of a gas- based power station are: it is much less capital intensive (as compared to a coal-based one), it can be erected in much shorter period (of around two years), and it is environmentally friendly.”

Moreover, use of compressed natural gas be fully exploited so as to cut out import bill on diesel oil. In the mean time, the Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL) has been established for taking necessary steps for the utilisation of natural gas in various spheres.

In the mean time use of compressed gas for running motor cars is being tested in India with the help of GAIL. Thus in the years to come, it can be expected that the use of natural gas will be totally diversified in India.

Mineral # 4. Iron ore:


In respect of iron ore deposits, India is quite rich. The quality of iron ore available in India is among the best in the world as the iron content ranges between 49 to 63 per cent. The known reserves of iron ore in India are nearly 6.6 per cent of the world’s deposit. Rich iron ore deposits are available in the states like Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh.

Hemetite deposits are available in Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Goa. Again Magnetite ore deposits which contain 25 to 62 per cent iron content are available in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.

The major iron ore deposits are available in Singhbhum, Naomandi and Gua areas of Bihar, Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar and Banai areas of Orissa, Durg and Baster districts of Madhya Pradesh and Salem and Nellore in Tamil Nadu.

At present the known iron ore reserves of India is estimated at 3160 crore tonnes. Presently Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Goa jointly produce about 65 per cent of the total iron ore production of the country. Again Madhya Pradesh, Goa and Karnataka jointly produce nearly 67 per cent of total iron ore production of the country. Bihar and Orissa together produce about 31 per cent of the total production.

Total production of iron ore which was only 32 lakh tonnes in 1950-51, gradually increased to 18.62 million tonnes in 1961, 47 million tonnes in 1980-81 and then to 167.3 million tonnes in 2011-12.

Considering the increasing domestic requirement of steel and its growing export, the Seventh Plan had set the production target of iron ore at 58 million tonnes by 1989-90 out to which 28 million tonnes would be available for domestic consumption necessary for steel manufacturing and the remaining 30 million tonnes would be available for export.

It would be nice if the plant capacity of our steel plants be fully utilised by feeding more iron ore and the country could realise benefit through this process of import substitution. In 2013-14, total production of finished steel was 81.5 million tonnes.

In India, the iron and steel industry is quite fortunate as it possesses high quality of iron ore available at low prices. As for example, Bailadilla mines of Baster district is considered as one of the best in the world in terms of its iron content. Thus due to this rich endowment conditions, India has already established itself as one of the cheapest producers of iron and steel in the world.

Mineral # 5. Manganese Ore:

In India, manganese ore has its strategic importance. Manganese ore is essential for different types of Indian industries like iron and steel, enamel, plastic, chemical, varnish, dry battery etc. The demand for manganese in the meantime has increased a lot with the expansion of our iron and steel industry.

The major manganese deposits in India are located in the states like Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Orissa, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan and Goa.

In India, total reserve of manganese ore is estimated at 370 million tonnes’ which constitute nearly 60 per cent of the total world deposits of 612 million tonnes. The total known reserves of manganese in India are considered as third largest in the world. In India, the most important manganese deposits are situated at Nagpur, Bhandara-Balaghat belt of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.

But the manganese deposits of Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Karnataka are not so rich and thus of lesser importance. In 2002-03, total production of manganese ore was estimated at 1.54 million tonnes. Manganese is mostly used in steel industry.

In India about 25 per cent of the total production of manganese ore is utilised to meet the domestic requirement of our steel industry and the remaining 75 per cent of the production is exported to various countries like the U.K., France, Japan, West Germany and the USA, India is also the third largest producer of manganese in the world.

Mineral # 6. Chromite:

Chromite is one of the ferro-alloy metals. Chromium ore is essential for the manufacture of ferrochrome required for special steel, refractory bricks, chemicals and for defence goods. Chromite deposits were first discovered in Mysore and Hassan districts of Karnataka. Later on, chromite deposits were also found in Singhbhum of Bihar, Cuttack and Keonjhar of Orissa.

Chromite is also available in Maharashtra, Manipur, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. In India, the known reserve of chromite is estimated at 10.4 crore tonnes. Total production of chromite ore in India has increased from 2.7 lakh tonnes in 1971 to 7.5 lakh tonnes in 1988 and then to 22.47 lakh tonnes in 2002-03.

Mineral # 7. Copper:

Copper is one of the very important non-ferrous minerals and possesses the quality of high corrosion resistance. Important copper ore deposits are located in Singhbhum district of Bihar, Khetri, Jhunjhunu and Alwar districts of Rajasthan and Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh.

Moreover, small quantity of copper ore deposits is also available in Khammam district of Andhra Pradesh, Chittradurga and Hassan districts of Karnataka and also in Sikkim and Garowhal region.

In India, total known reserves of copper ore are estimated at nearly 422 million tonnes. Total production of copper in India which was 0.52 million tonnes in 1970, gradually increased to 5.30 million tonnes in 1988 and then declined to only 0.15 million tonnes in 2002-03 increasing due to its growing use in defence and other technological sector.

Thus the domestic production of copper is not sufficient to meet the domestic requirement of the country and thus the gap in the supply is met through imports.

Mineral # 8. Bauxite:

Bauxite is basically an essential mineral required for the production of wonder metal known as aluminium. Aluminium is an important metal required for aeronautical industry and is also used in cement industries, oil refineries and as a constructing material for constructing buildings, bridges and household furniture. At present total reserve of bauxite for all grades are estimated at 303.7 crore tonnes.

Bihar and Madhya Pradesh contain rich deposits of Bauxite which constitutes nearly two-third of its total deposit. Other reserves of bauxite are available in Salem (Tamil Nadu), Kolhapur (Maharashtra), Sambalpur (Orissa), Belgaun (Karnataka), Goa and Reasi (Jammu and Kashmir).

Total production of bauxite has increased from 1.66 million tonnes in 1978 to 9.44 million tonnes in 2002-03. During this period, the production of aluminium has also increased significantly and thus the country has now become self-sufficient in respect of this wonder metal.

Mineral # 9. Mica:

India is quite famous for the production of mica as it produces the major portion of mica produced throughout the world. About 75 per cent of the total world production of mica is produced in India. Mica is mostly used as an electrical insulator and is also used for ornaments making, decoration, glazing, transparent painting etc.

Rich deposits of mica are found in Bihar and it is mostly available in Gaya, Hazaribagh, Mungher and Bhagalpur districts.

Mica deposits are also available in Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan. From the very beginning, the annual production of mica was estimated at 20 thousand tonnes. But the production of mica has been declining in recent years and it has reached the level of 1.4 thousand tonnes in 2002-03.

Mica is an important foreign exchange earner for the country. A major portion of mica produced in India is exported to U.K., USA, France, West Germany and Italy.

Mineral # 10. Lead and Zinc:

Lead and zinc are the two important non-ferrous metals which have large industrial uses in our country. Unfortunately, total domestic production of lead and zinc are not at all sufficient to meet its growing industrial demand. Considering its domestic requirement, India has been importing a huge quantity of lead and zinc every year.

In India the reserves of lead and zinc are located in the states like Rajasthan, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Sikkim and Meghalaya. In Rajasthan, Zawar deposits are of much economic value and its total reserve is estimated at 9 million tonnes. Again total reserve of these minerals at Mocha-Mogra is estimated at 10 million tonnes.

But the total known reserves of lead and zinc ore are estimated at nearly 202 million tonnes out of which its metal content is estimated at 2.4 million tonnes of lead and 10 million tonnes of zinc.

Moreover, in some places like Kurnool, Guntur, Hazaribagh, Kangra and Shimla, a limited deposit of lead and zinc ore has been traced in recent years. Total production of primary lead and secondary lead in 2002-03 was 58.0 thousand tonnes respectively and that of zinc (ingots) was 4.99 lakh tonnes in 2002-03.

Mineral # 11. Gold:

Gold is a precious metal. It is having both its domestic and industrial uses. Gold is mostly used in making ornaments and for maintaining gold reserves against the issue of currency. In India, gold mines are located both at Kolar field of Kolar district, Hutti gold field of Raichur district of Karnataka and at Ramgiri gold field under Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh.

Total production of gold in India which was 7000 kgs in 1951, gradually declined to 4,965 kgs in 1965, 2640 kgs in 1979 and finally to 2873 kgs in 2002-03. The total known recoverable reserves of gold in India are estimated at 17.0 million tonnes with its net gold content of only 66.7 tonnes of metal.

Recently, Indian scientists have discovered new deposits of gold in Karnataka. The National Geo­physical Research Institute (NGRI) of Hyderabad has received preliminary evidence of eight new gold mines of Chitradurga and Sandur districts of Karnataka.

Presently, three mines—Kolar and Hutti in Karnataka and Ramgiri in Andhra Pradesh account for a total of 1.8 tonnes of gold. Compared to the country’s annual gold consumption of 560 tonnes, the indigenous production is negligible and hence there was an urgency in discovering new deposits.

Mineral # 12. Nickel:

Nickel is one of the very essential non-ferrous metals which is having large industrial use in the country. Nickel deposits are found in Cuttack, Keonjhar and Mayurbhanj districts of Orissa. Total known reserves of nickel in India are estimated to 18.8 crore tonnes. But the production of nickel in India presently is very minimum.

Mineral # 13. Limestone:

Limestone is an essential mineral which is used as an ingredient in a number of industries like cement, iron and steel, chemicals etc. Limestone is considered as the basic raw material required for the production of cement. Sufficient quantity of limestone is available in various states like Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Assam and Meghalaya.

In India the total known reserves of limestone of all grades have been estimated at 76446 million tonnes out of which recoverable reserves are estimated at 1033 million tonnes and total conditional reserves are estimated at 360 million tonnes. Moreover, total known reserves of flux grade limestone are estimated at 44 million tonnes which are very much required for iron and steel industry.

Again the reserves of furnace grade of limestone are estimated at 268 million tonnes. Thus there is potentiality for developing a good number of cement manufacturing units in India. Total production of limestone which was 25.1 million tonnes in 1971 gradually increased to 30.7 million tonnes in 1978 and then to 147 million tonnes in 2002-03.

Mineral # 14. Gypsum:

Gypsum is an essential mineral which is required as an important ingredient for the cement and fertilizer industry of India. In India, gypsum deposits are located in various states like Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and Jammu & Kashmir. Total known reserves of gypsum in India have been estimated at 1,248 million tonnes out of which about 1971 million tonnes of deposits are located in Rajasthan alone.

Total recoverable reserves of gypsum are estimated at 239 million tonnes. Total production of gypsum was 31.2 lakh tonnes in 2002-03. With the expansion of cement and fertilizer industry in India, the demand for gypsum has been gradually increasing in recent years.

Mineral # 15. Sulphur and Pyrite:

Sulphur is an essential ingredient required for the production of gunpowder, insecticides etc. Pyrite is the raw material required for the production of sulphur and sulphuric acid. Sulphur deposits are located at Amijhor of Bihar and Ingaldha of Rajasthan. Total known reserves of pyrite are estimated at 390 million tonnes which possess 40 per cent sulphur content.

Total production of sulphur and pyrites were 8.8 thousand tonnes and 1.4 lakh tonnes respectively in 1996-97. Sulphur is a chemical mineral and it is very much demanded in heavy chemical industries. Suphuric acid is very much essential for the production of fertilizers, paper, textiles, explosives, dyestuff chemicals etc.

Mineral # 16. Other Minerals:

India is also having viable deposits of some other minerals like thorium, uranium, diamond, silver etc. Thorium deposits are found in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Uranium deposits are also located at Singhbhum district of Bihar and Udaipur district of Rajasthan and also recently found in Meghalaya. Both these thorium and uranium deposits are very much essential for the generation of atomic energy.

Moreover, India is also possessing the scattered deposits of diamond in various states like Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka. In India, diamonds are only extracted from the Panna area of Madhya Pradesh. India is also having a very minimum deposit of silver in the Kolar area. In 2002-03, total production of diamond was 7444 carats and that of silver was 39689 kgs.

Thus from the foregoing analysis, it has been revealed that India is quite rich in respect of mineral resources and more particularly in respect of iron ore, manganese, bauxite, mica etc. These huge deposits of mineral resources are directly and indirectly helping the industrial development of the country.