Everything you need to know about the methods of management development.
Management development is a planned, systematic and continuous process of learning and growth designed to induce behavioural change in individuals by cultivating their mental abilities and inherent qualities through the acquisition, understanding and use of new knowledge, insights and skills as they are needed for effective management.
Management or executive development is a long-term educational future-oriented process.
Managers are the indispensable resources, the priceless assets of an organization. They generate creative ideas, translate them into concrete action plans and produce results.
The outcomes of managerial actions are going to be deep, profound and decisive.
The methods and techniques of management development can be studied under the following heads:-
1. On the Job Methods 2. Off the Job Methods.
Some of the on the job methods of management development are:-
1. Coaching 2. Job Rotation 3. Under Study 4. Multiple Management 5. Selected Readings 6. Committee’s Assignments 7. Project Assignments and 8. Position Rotation.
Some of the off the job methods of management development are:-
1. Case Studies 2. Conference Method 3. Role Playing 4. Sensitivity Training 5. Structured Insight 6. Stimulation, 7. Conference Training 8. Multiple Management 9. Special Meetings.
Management Development Methods – On the Job and Off the Job Methods of Management Development
Methods of Management Development – On the Job and Off the Job Methods
Various on the job and off the job methods are used for management development.
Here follows a detailed description about these methods:
1. On the Job Methods:
These are the methods in which learning of executive’s stakes place at the job place. These are time and cost saving techniques. On the job methods include the following:
In this method, superior guides and trains the subordinates or trainees as a coach. The content matter of coaching depends on the goals decided before the starting of coaching. The coach guides the trainees, reviews their performance time to time and suggests the changes required.
This method works well if the coach and trainee are open with each other and there is an effective communication between them. Trainees take interest if they are recognised for improvement and rewarded for that.
ii. Job Rotation:
According to Bennett, “Job rotation is a process of horizontal movement that widens the managers experience horizon beyond limited confines of his own.”
Job rotation is a method in which a person is moved from one job to another on some pre-planned basis. There is a rotation of jobs until the trainee acquires knowledge about all related jobs. The purpose of job rotation is to increase knowledge, skills, understanding of trainees about various jobs. It increases their confines. Job rotation method is usually designed for junior executives and it may take a period of six months to two years for one rotation to complete.
iii. Under Study:
In this method, one person is selected by supervisor and trained like his descendant. He is prepared to assume full time responsibilities of position presently held by supervisor. If the supervisor leaves the job or is on long absence due to illness, retirement, promotion or death, etc., then that trained person become available at the place of supervisor. Supervisor gets most of his work done from the trainee, discusses problems with him and involves him in decision making. Trainee is also allowed to attend discussions and meetings as a representative of supervisor.
iv. Multiple Management:
This technique is a contribution of Charles P. McCormick of McCormick Corporation of Baltimore, U.S.A.
In this method, a junior board of executives is made to learn the skills of Board of Directors (BOD). Major problems are analysed by junior board and recommendations given to BOD. This is beneficial to junior board of executives as they learn problem solving techniques and it benefits BOD as they get the valuable opinions of executives. Vacancies of BOD can be filled from junior board of executives.
v. Selected Readings:
In this method, development is through reading. Fluctuations are an integral part of business because business environment keeps changing. New and creative managerial techniques are also innovated in such environment. Managers can get knowledge about the latest developments in management world from selected professional books, journals, magazines, etc.
vi. Committee’s Assignments:
A committee is formed of trainee executives. In committee meetings, all participants participate and discuss. The knowledge is increased by education. They also learn various methods of problem solving. Communication skills also develop.
vii. Project Assignments:
In this method, a group of workers is given a project work related to their functional area. This group of workers is called as project team or task force. Project team studies the work project problems and finds the solution. In this process, trainees learn various procedures. For example, marketing officers may be given the task of checking the accessibility of a market. In this process, they will learn about segmentation, positioning and targeting also. They will learn about the relationship of marketing department with other departments as well.
2. Off the Job Methods:
In these methods, the development process is not carried at job location but somewhere outside the job area.
Off the job methods include the following:
i. Case Studies:
In this method, trainees are given a case in writing. Case here means a business problem or a situation which demands a solution. Trainees are directed to analyse the problem, find alternative courses of action, evaluate alternative courses and select most appropriate solution. The trainer sees the solution and guides regarding it and ensures that no relevant fact is missed.
ii. Conference Method:
A formal meeting conducted deliberately is called as conference. The participants discuss the topic, give their ideas. The conference can be divided into small sessions also. This method emphasises on interaction and participation of trainees. This method also helps to develop conceptual knowledge, modify attitude and is suitable for a group of 15-20 persons. In a group with more than 20 persons, active participation would not be possible.
iii. Role Playing:
In this method, trainees are given the roles which they act on the stage. Role players act before the class. This is a realistic behaviour of imaginary situations. Roles are given for situations like hiring, firing, interviewing, grievance handling, disciplining a worker, presentation to clients or customers etc.
Lectures are an easy method for development when number of trainees is large. It is cost effective and consumes less time. Lectures are formally organised talks in which instructor guides about specific topics. In lectures, various demonstrations, audio-visual aids and discussions can be used for creation of interest among listeners.
This method is useful when the purpose is to teach facts, concepts, principles, attitudes and problem solving skills.
v. Group Discussion:
In this method, one topic of study is discussed by members of a group. Through this discussion, knowledge and communication skills of all group members improve. The topic is summarised by the chairman of group discussion.
vi. In-Basket Exercise:
In this method, employees are given a basket or tray or box containing papers and files which are related to their functional area. The trainee has to study these files and give his suggestions on the problem or situation. Suggestions of trainees are compared and conclusions arrived at. A report is also made of these suggestions.
vii. Management Games:
Management or business games represent the real life situations of business. Several teams of trainees are made who compete with each other or against the environment to achieve the objectives. The teams represent the companies, they solve their problems, take the decisions to achieve the maximum hypothetical profits. The game is continued for 6-12 periods. In the end, final results of all teams are found and compared with each other.
Management games are of two kinds; first interacting type, in which decisions or actions of one team affect the other. Second, non-interacting games, in which decisions of every team are independent, do not affect others. Their results are entirely based on their own competence.
Management games train the trainees regarding communication skills, problem solving techniques, dispute handling skills, leadership qualities, etc.
viii. Sensitivity Training:
This training is conducted under controlled conditions, so it is also known as Laboratory training. It is also known as T-Group training. The purpose of this training is to make executives able to understand how groups work, how people interpret self and others. T-Group training aims at increasing tolerance level of individual also.
The trainer in this training is usually a psychologist. The activities of training involve sitting of group members around a table and discussing for long time. Sensitivity training brings a change in the behaviour of employees.
Methods of Management Development – Special Courses, Special Project, Committee Assignment, Case Study, Conference Training, Management Games & Sensitivity Training
A large number of methods of management development have been designed.
Some of them are discussed below:
Method # 1. Special Courses:
The executive may be required to attend special courses which are formally organised by the enterprise with the help of experts. The executives may also be sponsored to attend the courses conducted by the managerial institutions. This method is gaining popularity these days. It may be noted that only the big enterprise can send their executives to the management development courses run by the management institutes because the fee of these courses is very high.
Method # 2. Special Project:
Under this method, a trainee may be assigned a project that is closely related to the objectives of his department. For example, trainee may be asked to develop a system of cost control in the execution of an order. The trainee will study the problem and make recommendations upon it.
This project will also help in educating the trainee about the importance of cost and to understand the organisational relationships with the accounting and other departments. Thus, the trainee acquires the knowledge of related subjects also.
Method # 3. Committee Assignment:
Under this method, an ad-hoc committee of junior executives is constituted. It is assigned a subject to discuss and make recommendations. The committee has assigned objectives and responsibilities related to the work of the organisation. It will make the study of the problem and present its suggestion to the departmental managers.
Committee assignments can provide the necessary general background to the trainees because every member of the committee gets a chance to learn from others. It is an important device of educating the executives and of changing their behavior towards the selected problem.
Method # 4. Case Study:
Case method is a means of simulating experience in the classroom. Under this method, the trainees may be given a problem to discuss which is more or less related to the principles already taught. This method gives the trainee an opportunity to apply his knowledge to the solution of realistic problems. Here, the trainee is expected to study the information given in the case and make decisions or give conclusion based on the situation.
If the student is provided a case of an actual company, he is expected to research the firm to gain a better appreciation of its financial condition and corporate culture. It is also necessary to come up with good case material based on real life situations and present the same before trainees in an interesting manner. When cases are meaningful, and are similar to work related situations, trainees can improve their decision making skills and problem solving abilities.
Method # 5. Conference Training:
A conference is a group meeting conducted according to an organised plan in which the members seek to develop knowledge and understanding by oral participation. It is an effective training device for the persons in the positions of the conference member and conference leader. As a member, person can learn from others by comparing his opinions with those of other members.
He also learns to respect the view point of others and to realise that there is more than one workable approach to motivate people through his direction of discussion. He learns the effect of closely controlling and dominating the discussion as compared to adopting a more permissive type of direction.
Method # 6. Management Games:
A variety of business and management games have been devised and are being used with varying degrees of success in development programmes. A management game is a classroom exercise in which teams of students compete against each other to achieve common objectives.
The game is designed to be a close representation of real-life conditions. The trainees are used to make decisions about production cost, research and development, inventories sales etc., for a simulated organisation. Since they are often divided into teams as competing groups, experience is also obtained in team-work.
Method # 7. Sensitivity Training:
Sensitivity training or T-group training means the development of awareness and sensitivity to behavioral patterns of oneself and others. It is an experience in interpersonal relationships which results in a change in feelings and attitudes towards oneself and others. T-group is helpful in unlearning and learning certain things.
They help the participants to understand how groups actually work and give them a chance to discover how they are interpreted by others. It also aims at increasing tolerance power of the individual and his ability to understand others. The sensitivity training programmes are generally conducted under controlled laboratory conditions.
Methods of Management Development – 2 Broad Categories: On the Job and Off the Job Methods
A large variety of methods of management development have come into prominence these days.
These methods can be classified into two broad categories, namely:
(a) On-the-Job Methods:
In internal facilities or on-the-job facilities include the practices and facilities given by the enterprise within the organization. Every good concern tries to provide internal development and training facilities to its managers or executives.
On-the-job methods include-
(i) Experience, coaching and understudy,
(ii) Position rotation,
(iii) Special projects and task forces, and
(iv) Committee assignments.
(b) Off-the-Job Methods:
Off-the-job methods include the external facilities which are also of two types; firstly for those new entrants who want to tap management as their career, and secondly, junior and middle level managers to equip them with higher skills, and techniques in management. The former type of training is provided by various universities and institutions running M.B.A. programmes. For junior executives various external facilities are provided by the business houses.
Off-the-job methods include-
(i) Special courses or classes
(ii) Role playing,
(iii) Sensitivity training,
(iv) Structured insight,
(vi) Conference training
(vii) Multiple management,
(viii) Special meetings.
(1) On-the-Job Methods:
1. Experience, Coaching and Understudy:
Learning by experience cannot and should not be eliminated as a method of development. The executives may have any title while learning. An understudy may be assistant to someone; or special assistant to someone or any of the regular supervisory or executive positions developing upon his special assignment.
He may be assigned as an understudy solely for training, or he may be assigned as a staff man or line assistant to a busy executive who really needs his help. The understudy may have regular duties for which he is solely responsible. Thus, he learns by experience, observation, guidance and coaching. This is a good method for new entrants, promoters and management trainees.
2. Position Rotation:
The objective of position rotation method is the broadening of the background of trainee in the organizations. If an executive is rotated periodically from one job to another job, he acquires a general background. The main advantages of position rotating are provision of general background in all functional areas of the business, training in actual situation and competition among the rotating trainees. Due to rapid specialization, this techniques has become less effective and less useful.
3. Special Project:
Under special project method, an executive is assigned a project that is closely related to the objectives of his department. For example, a trainee may be asked to develop a system of cost control in the execution of an order. He will study the problem and make recommendations upon it.
This project would also help in educating the trainee about the importance of cost and the organizational relationships with the accounting and other departments. Thus, he acquires a knowledge of allied subjects also.
4. Committee Assignment or Multiple Management:
Under this method an ad hoc committee is constituted. It is to discuss a subject and make recommendations. It is assigned objectives and responsibilities related to work of the organization. It makes a study of the problem and presents its suggestions to the departmental manager.
Committee assignment may provide the necessary general background to the trainees because every member of the committee gets a chance to learn from others. It is an important device of educating the executives to acquire general background and to change their behaviour towards the selected problem.
(2) Off-the-Job Training Methods:
1. Special Courses:
The executives are required to attend special courses formally organized by the enterprise with the help of experts from educational institutions. The executives may also be sponsored to attend the courses to be conducted by management institutions. This method is popular these days. However, due to high fee only the big enterprises may send their executives to the management development courses run by management institutions.
2. Role Playing:
Under role playing method, a conflict situation is artificially created and two or more trainees are assigned different parts to play. The role players are provided with either a written or oral description of a situation and the role they are to play. They are allowed sufficient time to plan their actions.
They must act out their parts spontaneously before the class. For instance, a role playing situation may be a supervisor discussing a grievance with an employee or a salesman making a presentation to a purchasing agent. Role playing is used for human relations and leadership training.
It aims to give trainees an opportunity to learn human relation skills through practice and to develop insight into one’s own behaviour and its effect upon others. Thus, its objective is very narrow. It may be used in human relations training and sales training as both these involve dealing with other people.
There are various advantages of role playing. Firstly, it provides an opportunity for developing human relations, understanding and skills and to put into practice the knowledge they have acquired from text books, lectures, discussions, etc.
Secondly, the interview may be taped to provide the trainees a chance to listen to their performance and note their strengths and weakness. Lastly, knowledge of results is immediate, because the trainees as well as the listeners analyze the behaviour of the role players.
3. Case Study:
It is a means of simulating experience in the classroom. The trainees may be given a problem to discuss which is more or less related to the principles already taught. He is given an opportunity to apply his knowledge to the solution of realistic problems.
Cases may use in following ways:
(i) They can be used subsequent to the exposition of formal theory under which the trainees apply their knowledge of theory to specific situations.
(ii) The trainees may be assigned to cases for written analysis and oral class discussion without any prior explanation of pertinent concepts and theory. The case study places heavy demands upon the trainees. It requires that they should have a good deal of maturity and background in the subject matter concerned.
Case studies are extensively used in teaching law, personnel management, human relations, marketing management and business policy in various educational institutions. Students learn that there is no single answer to a particular problem. The answer of each trainee may differ. Case discussions will help them to appreciate each other’s thinking. That is why, case studies are frequently used in supervisory and executive training in business.
4. Conference Training:
A conference is a group meeting conducted according to an organized plan. The members seek to develop knowledge and understanding by obtaining a considerable amount of oral participation. It is an effective training of both conference members and conference leader. As a member, a participant can learn from others by comparing his opinions with those of the others.
He learns the effect of closely controlling and dominating the discussion. Participants can understand how groups actually work and give them a change to discover how they are interpreted by others. Sensitivity training aims at increasing tolerance power of the individuals and their ability to understand others.
The different methods outlined above are not mutually exclusive in nature. The typical programme of an executive development includes a number of methods in both categories. Unlike training programmes for operatives, the primary emphasis in executive development should be on self-development.
Development which occurs on or near the job has the advantages or providing motivation and of being practicable. As regards the questions of choosing one method against the other, higher the position in the organization, the more important becomes off-the-job methods.
The managers are highly educated persons and they can soon learn newer techniques. The important thing is to realize the need and importance of such development programmes and to provide these facilities.
Methods of Management Development – Top 8 Methods: Lectures, Conference & Seminar, Coaching, Group Discussions, Role Playing, Management Games and a Few Others
Various methods of management development are as follows:
Lectures are essential when technical or special information of a complex nature is to be provided. These can be supplemented by discussions, case studies, demonstrations, and film shows. Lecture method is a simple way of imparting knowledge to a larger number of persons within a short period of time.
It is very useful when facts, concepts, principles, attitudes and problem solving skills are to be taught. Lectures can be used, to introduce a subject to reduce anxiety about upcoming training programmes, to present basic material that will provide a common background and application of rules and principles.
(ii) Conference and Seminars:
This method consists of organizing conferences, group discussions and workshops. In a conference usually eminent experts in the field are invited to relate their experiences and enterprise in the field, while the management trainees note down significant points.
In a group discussion, the trainees are asked to discuss a certain theme, synergize their individual energies, skills and knowledge. In workshops, along with the presentations of experts, the trainees are also allowed to make presentations.
This method is important as the superior guides and instructs the trainee as a coach. The coach sets mutually agreed upon goals, suggests how to achieve these goals, review the trainees progress and suggest changes required in behaviour and performance.
(iv) Group Discussions:
It is a variant of the lecture method. Under this a paper is prepared and presented by one or more trainees on the selected topic. This is followed by a critical discussion. The chairman of the discussion or seminar summaries the contents of the papers and the discussions which follows seminars and conferences enable management to learn from the experiences of each other and have been quite popular.
(v) Role Playing:
In this method, trainees act out a given corporate role as they would in a stage play. In this role players are simply informed of a situation and of the respective roles that they have to play. This method is useful in providing himself and thereby to develop a sense of confidence with their interpersonal skills.
(vi) Management Games:
Management Games are made the pattern of a real situation. This is roughly, a variation of the ‘incident method’ and ‘role playing’. In this trainees are divided into two groups and they enact these roles. The problems posed in these games are then answered. Each answer is analysed and processed and judged by a panel of judges.
(vii) Position Rotation:
It involves movement or transfer of management from one position or job to another on some planned basis. These persons are moved from one managerial position to another according to a rotation schedule. Position rotation aim is to broaden the knowledge, skills and outlook of management.
Job rotation or position rotation is generally designed by junior management. Job rotation is a process of horizontal movement that widens the managers experience horizon beyond the limited confines of his own.
(viii) Programmed Instruction:
This method incorporates a prearranged acquisition of some specific skills. Information is broken into meaningful units and these units are arranged in a proper way to form a logical and learning package.
Each package is built upon the earlier ones and knowledge is imparted with the help of a teaching machine. The package involves presenting questions to utilize the information given and instant feedback is given to indicate the accuracy of answers.
Methods of Management Development
1. On the Job Technique Development Carried Out During Job:
In coaching the trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who acts as an instructor and teaches job knowledge and skills to the trainee.
b) Job Rotation:
This is particularly useful in the development of diversified skills and to give executive a broader outlook, which are very important to the upper management levels.
An understudy is normally chosen with forethought of making available to the organization a subordinate who is equal to his superior in the event of retirement, illness or death of the superior. The subordinate will be able to take over his position and manage as effectively as his boss could.
d) Multiple Management:
This technique is mainly useful in bringing the managers out of their narrow shells and helps them gain a broader outlook and knowledge in different functional areas.
e) Special Projects:
The trainees’ may ask to work on special projects related with departmental objectives. By this, the trainees will acquire the knowledge of the assigned work and also learn how to work with others.
It refers to learning by doing. This is one of the oldest methods of on-the-job training. Although this is very effective method but it also very time-consuming and wasteful. Thus it should be followed by other training methods.
g) Committee Assignment:
In this, the trainees become members of a committee. The committee is assigned a problem to discuss and make recommendations.
2. Off-The-Job Methods:
These methods require trainees to leave their workplace and concentrate their entire time towards the training objectives. These days’ off-the-job training methods have become popular due to limitations of the on-the-job training methods such as facilities and environment, lack of group discussion and full participation among the trainees from different disciplines, etc. In the off-the job methods, the development of trainees is the primary task rest everything is secondary.
Following are the main off-the-job training methods:
(a) Special Courses and Lectures:
These are the most traditional and even famous today, method of developing personnel. Special courses and lectures are either designed by the company itself or by the management/professional schools. Companies then sponsor their trainees to attend these courses or lectures. These are the quick and most simple ways to provide knowledge to a large group of trainees.
(b) Conferences and Seminars:
In this, the participants are required to pool their thoughts, ideas, viewpoints, suggestions and recommendations. By attending conferences and seminars, trainees try to look at a problem from different angles as the participants are normally from different fields and sectors.
(c) Selected Reading:
This is the self-improvement training technique. The persons acquire knowledge and awareness by reading various trade journals and magazines. Most of the companies have their own libraries. The employees become the members of the professional associations to keep abreast of latest developments in their respective fields.
(d) Case Study Method:
This technique was developed by Harvard Business School, U.S.A. It is used as a supplement to lecture method. A case is a written record of a real business situation/problem faced by a company. The case is provided to the trainees for discussion and analysis. Identification and diagnose of the problem is the aim in case study method. Alternate courses of action are suggested from participants.
(e) Programmed Instruction/Learning:
This is step-by-step self-learning method where the medium may be a textbook, computer or the internet. This is a systematic method for teaching job skills involving presenting questions or facts, allowing the person to respond and giving the learner immediate feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers.
This is creativity-training technique, it helps people to solve problems in a new and different way. In this technique, the trainees are given the opportunity to generate ideas openly and without any fear of judgement. Criticism of any idea is not allowed so as to reduce inhibiting forces. Once a lot of ideas are generated then they are evaluated for their cost and feasibility.
In this method, the trainees are assigned a role, which they have to play in an artificially created situation. For example, a trainee is asked to play the role of a trade union leader and another trainee is required to perform the role of a HR manager. This technique results in better understanding of each other’s situation by putting foot in other’s shoes.
(h) Vestibule Schools:
Large organisations frequently provide what are described as vestibule schools a preliminary to actual shop experience. As far as possible, shop conditions are duplicated, but instruction, not output is major objective.
“A vestibule school is operated as a specialised endeavor by the personnel department. This training is required when the amount of training that has to be done exceeds the capacity of the line supervisor; a portion of training is evolved from the line and assigned to staff through a vestibule school.” The advantage of a vestibule school is specialisation.
(i) Apprenticeship Training:
This training approach began in the middle Ages when those who wanted to learn trade skill bound themselves to a master craftsman and worked under his guidance. Apprenticeship training is a structured process by which people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training.
(j) In-Basket Exercise:
In this technique, the trainees are provided background information on a simulated firm and its products, and key personnel. After this, the trainees are provided with in- basket of memos, letters, reports, requests and other documents related with the firm. The trainee must make sense out of this mass of paperwork and prepare memos, make notes and delegate tasks within a limited time period.
(k) Business Games:
Business games involve teams of trainees. The teams discuss and analyse the problem and arrive at decisions. Generally, issues related with inventories, sales, R&D, production process, etc. are taken up for consideration.
(l) Behaviour Modelling:
This is structured approach to teach specific supervisory skill. This is based on the social learning theory in which the trainee is provided with a specific model of behaviour and is informed in advance of the consequences of engaging in that type of behaviour.
(m) Sensitivity (T-Group) Training:
In this type of training, a small group of trainees consisting of 10 to 12 persons is formed which meets in an unstructured situation. There is no set agenda or schedule or plan. The main objectives are more openness with each other, increased listening skills, trust, support, tolerance and concern for others. The trainers serve a catalytic role.
The group meets in isolation without any formal agenda. There is great focus on inter-personal behaviour. And, the trainer provides honest but supportive feedback to members on how they interacted with one another.
(n) Multiple Management:
This technique of training was first introduced by McCormick, President of McCormick & co. of Baltimore in 1932. He gave the idea of establishing a junior board of directors. Authority is given to the junior board members to discuss any problem that could be discussed in senior board and give recommendations to the senior board. Innovative and productive ideas became available for senior board.
Methods of Management Development – Top 2 Methods: On the Job and Off the Job
Method # 1. On-the-Job:
When an executive is thoroughly committed to the need for developing his subordinates and is qualified and willing to give time for development, possibly, on-the-job method is the best method. It is the most common and formal method of executive development.
The following methods are important in this connection:
When a manager takes an active role in guiding another manager, we refer to this activity as coaching. Just as track coaches observe, analyze and attempt to improve the performance of their athletes, “coaches” on-the-job can do the same. The effective coach, whether on the track or in the corporate hierarchy, gives guidance through direction, advice, criticism and suggestion in an attempt to aid the growth of employee.
(ii) Understudy Assignments:
The summer methods in organisation are characterized by a particular phenomenon – a rapid rise in the usage of understudy assignment, as development technique to replace vacationing managers. By understudy assignments, we mean potential managers are given an opportunity to relieve an experienced manager of his or her job, and act as his or her substitute during the period. This label also describes permanent “assistant to” positions as well as temporary opportunities to assist managers in completing their jobs.
(iii) Position Rotation:
The next method of executive development is position rotation. The major objective of job rotation training is the broadening of the background of trainee in the organisation. If an executive is rotated periodically from one job to another job, he acquires a general background.
The main advantages are – it provides a general background in all functional area of the business. Training takes place in actual situation. Competition can be stimulated among the rotating trainees. However due to rapid specialisation this technique has become less effective and less useful.
(iv) Committee Assignments:
Assignment to a committee can provide an opportunity for the employee to share in managerial decision making to learn by watching others, and to investigate specific organisational problems. When committees are of an ‘ad hoc’ or temporary nature, they often take on task force activities designed to level into particular problem, ascertain alternative solution and make a recommendation for implementing a solution.
These temporary assignments can be both interesting and rewarding to the employees’ growth. Appointment to permanent committees increases the employees’ exposure to other members of the organisation, broadens his or her understanding and provides an opportunity to grow and make recommendations under the scrutiny of other committee members.
(v) Special Project:
This is a very flexible method. Under this method an executive may be assigned a project that is closely related to the objectives of his department. For instance, a trainee may be assigned to develop a system of cost control in the execution of an order. The trainee will study the problem and make recommendations upon it.
This project would also help in educating the trainee, the importance of cost and understand the organisational relationships with the accounting and other departments. Thus, the trainee acquires the knowledge of allied subjects also.
(vi) Committees and Junior Boards of Management:
These are composed of middle level managers selected on the basis of merit rating who meet regularly and act as idea men. Their proposals are considered by responsible general executive and may be referred to the Board of Directors if found suitable. This broadens the perspective of the members and instills in them a sense of responsibility.
Method # 2. Off-the-Job:
In these methods, the executives have to leave their workplace/office and devote their entire time to the development objective.
The following methods come under this category:
(i) Lecture Courses:
Formal lecture courses offer an opportunity for managers or potential managers to acquire knowledge and develop their conceptual and analytical abilities. In large organisations, these lecture courses may be offered in-house “by the organisation itself and supported by outside college course work”.
Small organisations can utilize courses offered in development programmes at universities and colleges and through consulting organisations. Often, college and university faculties are willing to provide the unique needs of an organisation.
(ii) Role Playing:
Role playing technique is used for human relations and leadership training. Its purpose is to give trainees an opportunity to learn human relations skills through practice and it develops insight into one’s own behaviour and its effect upon others. Thus its objective is very narrow, i.e., to increase the trainee’s skill in dealing with others. It can be used in human relations training and sales training because both these involve dealing with other people.
(iii) Sensitivity Training:
Sensitivity training or ‘T-group’ training means the development awareness and sensitivity to behavioural patterns of oneself and others. It is an experience in inter-personal relationships, which result in a change in feeling and attitudes towards oneself and others. T-groups are helpful in unlearning and learning certain things.
They help the participants to understand how groups actually work and give them a chance to discover how they are interpreted by others. It also aims at increasing tolerance power of the individual and his ability to understand others. The sensitivity training programmes are generally conducted under controlled laboratory conditions.
(iv) In Basket Exercise:
This is a variant of simulation. The trainee is provided with a desk and a variety of immediate problems in his basket. His reactions and decisions become the basis for critical evaluation and discussion.
(v) Transactional Analysis:
In this practice it is assumed that people have three basic states of being- parent, child and adult. These states or traits are manifest in their transactions as a regulator and evaluator of others. Person influenced by the child trait tend to feel inferior and dominated. Those with the adult trait view life as it is experienced in reality.
One figures it out by oneself not as one was taught or how one wished or fancied it to be. Two persons with the adult trait will conduct a transaction with thoughts and mutual recognition with T. A. training can lead to modified behaviour by providing personal insights.
(vi) Management Games:
Games, which are frequently played on an electronic computer that has been programmed for the particular game, provide opportunities for individuals to make decisions and to consider the implications of a decision on the other segments of the organisation with no adverse effect, should the decision be a poor one.
(vii) Conference Methods:
They permit trainees to think about problems, express themselves, assess the opinion of others, understand teamwork and develop leadership conferences — include human relations, supervision, general economic understanding, personnel administration, labour relations and allied numerous problems.